Stop 1
Stop 2
Stop 3
Stop 4
Stop 5
Stop 6
Stop 7


Stop 1 - Stop 2 - Stop 3 - Stop 4 - Stop 5 - Stop 6 - Stop 7

Stop 1:

More information about alluvial aquifers.

A water bearing deposit of unconsolidated material left behind by a river or other flowing water (USGS definition)

What kind of sketch should I be drawing?

Geologists use sketches as data recording tools. You want to draw what you see of the river, record where you might find specific grain sizes, sorting, what the flow is like in the channel etc. Use your sketch as a way to remember what you were looking at and record all important observations at that stop.

Stop 2:

1. What is an example of a good outcrop sketch?

Below you will see an example of a good field sketch of an outcrop. Be sure to include a scale, key and name of the rock unit.

image courtesy of 420k/Trips/trip1.htm

2. How do I write a geologic description?

A good geologic description would include the following:

3. How do I formulate a hypothesis?

A hypothesis is a question which has been reworded into a form that can be tested experimentally. In essence, it is your predicted outcomes. You attempt to predict, in advance, how any experiments will turn out and what the answer to your question(s) might be. While there is often a logical reason for making your predictions, this step may be largely intuitive and may reflect your past experience with similar questions.

Hypotheses are possible causes, not just a generalization based on inductive reasoning. There is usually a separate hypothesis for each major question you have asked and probably one overall hypothesis for your entire project. A hypothesis should be testable and you should plan on one or more experiments to test each hypothesis. As this is a tentative answer to what originally puzzled you, this is a very important step.

It is not necessary that your hypothesis end up being correct... many are not. Hypotheses can be proven wrong or incorrect, but they can never be proven with absolute certainty. It's quite possible that in the future someone with additional knowledge may find an example where the hypothesis is not true. (information take from

Stop 5:

1. What does transmissivity tell us?

Transmissivity is the measure of the amount of water that can be transmitted horizontally through a unit. Unfortunately it is as simple as one might think. Transmissivity calculations assume the unit is horizontal (not always the case!) and also that water is being transmitted through a unit width by the full saturated thickness of the aquifer. Transmissivity is a product of hydraulic conductivity an the saturated thickness of an aquifer. In our case of the Day Ranch, the higher the transmissivity, the better the aquifer is for pumping water.

Stop 6.

1. How do I find the Gallatin River data?

Click on Montana State in the large United States map. This will take you to a state map of Montana. Roll your mouse over the south central part of Montana (near Bozeman) and wait for the Alt-text [yellow boxes next to the mouse] to indicate you have found the Gallatin River stream gauge. Click on that dot. You will be at the Gallatin River stream gauge data.

2. What is cfs?

CFS stands for cubic feet per second and is the quantity of water equivalent to a stream one foot wide by one foot deep flowing with a velocity of one foot per second.

2. How do I convert from cfs to gpm?

to convert from cfs to gpm; multiply -cfs by 448.83 gpm (you can use 450 gpm for ease of calculation)