Characteristics
Morphology
Is an intracellular protozoan parasite. It has a complex lifecycle with sexual and asexual cycles taking place in a single host. Oocysts are thick-walled and are the extracellular and environmental stage.
Growth Conditions
Cell culture
Health Hazards
Host Range
Humans and Animals
Modes of Transmission
Transmitted through the fecal-oral route, direct contact with infected humans or animals, contaminated food, water, and aerosols.
Signs and Symptoms 
Acute gastroenteritis. Symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, cramps, fever, vomiting, myalgia, nausea, anorexia, malaise, and fatigue.
Infectious Dose
As low as 1-5 oocysts.
Incubation Period 
7 to 10 days.
Medical Precautions/Treatment
Prophylaxis None.
Vaccines None.
Treatment
None.
Surveillance
Monitor for symptoms.
MSU Requirements Report any exposures.
Laboratory Hazards
Laboratory Acquired Infections (LAIs)
High risk of infection. At least 16 cases laboratory acquired infections have been reported.
 Sources
Stool, intestinal biopsy specimens from humans or animals and environmental water.
Supplemental References
BMBL:5th Edition http://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5/BMBL.pdf
Canadian MSDS
http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/index-eng.php
CDC
Containment Requirements
BSL2 For all procedures involving known or potentially infected cultures.
ABSL2 For all procedures utilizing infected animals.
Spill Procedures
Small Notify others working in the lab. Remove and don new PPE. Cover area of the spill with absorbent material and add 10 % Bleach. Allow 30 minutes hour of contact time. After 30 minutes and then cleanup and dispose of materials.
Large For assistance, contact MSU's Biosafety Officer: Ryan Bartlett, ryan.bartlett@montana.edu, (406) 994-6733
or Safety and Risk Management (406-994- 2711).
Exposure Procedures
Mucous membrane
Flush eyes, mouth or nose for 5 minutes at eyewash station.
Other Exposures
Wash area with soap and water for 5 minutes.
Reporting
Immediately report incident to supervisor, complete a first report of injury report, and submit to Safety and Risk Management.
Medical Follow-up
During business hours: Bridger Occupational Health 3406 Laramie Drive. Weekdays 8am -6pm.  Weekends 9am-5pm
After business hours: Bozeman Deaconess Hospital Emergency Room 915 Highland Blvd Bozeman, MT
Viability
Disinfection
Susceptible to 50 % Bleach.
Inactivation
Inactivated by dry heat (1 hour at 160-170oC).
Survival Outside Host
Can survive for at least 6 months in the environment
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Minimum PPE Requirements
At minimum, gloves, closed toed shoes, lab coat, and appropriate face and eye protection prior to working with C. parvum. Additional PPE may be required depending on lab specific SOPs.
Additional Precautions
Additional precautions should be considered with work involving animals or large scale activities.