Characteristics
Morphology Member of the Enterobacteriaceae family. Is a facultative anaerobe and is a gram negative motile rod shaped bacteria.
Growth Conditions Can be placed in various growth media and incubated at 37°C.
Health Hazards
Host Range Humans and Animals.
Modes of Transmission  Contaminated food and water, contact with infected feces, infected animals or humans.
Signs and Symptoms  Gastroenteritis (food poisoning), fever, abdominal pain, myalgias, malaise, diarrhea or constipation.
Infectious Dose 1000 to 100000
Incubation Period  Ranges from 5 to 72 hours depending on the incubation period.
Medical Precautions/Treatment
Prophylaxis None.
Vaccines None. 
Treatment Chloramphenicol, ciproflaxin, amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, trimethoprim-sulfonamid, cephalosporins and norfloxacin.
Surveillance Monitor for symptoms of infection
MSU Requirements  Report any exposures
Laboratory Hazards
Laboratory Acquired Infections (LAIs) 64 cases and 2 deaths were reported from 1979 to 2004.
 Sources Blood, urine, feces, food and environmental materials.
Supplemental References
BMBL:5th Edition http://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5/BMBL.pdf
Canadian MSDS
http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/index-eng.php
CDC
https://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/
Containment Requirements
BSL2 For all procedures involving known or potentially infected cultures.
ABSL2 For all procedures utilizing infected animals.
Spill Procedures
Small Notify others working in the lab. Remove and don new PPE. Cover area of the spill with absorbent material and add 10 % Bleach. Allow 30 minutes hour of contact time. After 30 minutes and then cleanup and dispose of materials.
Large
For assistance, contact MSU's Biosafety Officer: Ryan Bartlett, ryan.bartlett@montana.edu, (406) 994-6733
or Safety and Risk Management (406-994- 2711).
Exposure Procedures
Mucous membrane
Flush eyes, mouth or nose for 5 minutes at eyewash station.
Other Exposures
Wash area with soap and water for 5 minutes.
Reporting
Immediately report incident to supervisor, complete a first report of injury report, and submit to Safety and Risk Management.
Medical Follow-up
During business hours: Bridger Occupational Health 3406 Laramie Drive. Weekdays 8am -6pm.  Weekends 9am-5pm
After business hours: Bozeman Deaconess Hospital Emergency Room 915 Highland Blvd Bozeman, MT
Viability
Disinfection Susceptible to 10 % Bleach, 70 % ethanol, and  2 % glutaraldehyde.
Inactivation Inactivated by moist heat (15 minutes at 121° C) and dry heat (1 hour at 160-170° C).
Survival Outside Host Can survive in cattle slurry for 19-60 days, cattle manure for 48 days, soil for 231 days, and water for up to 152 days. Survive on fingertips for 80 minutes.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Minimum PPE Requirements At minimum, gloves, closed toed shoes, lab coat, and appropriate face and eye protection prior to working with S. enterica. Additional PPE may be required depending on lab specific SOPs.
Additional Precautions All procedures that may produce aerosols, or involve high concentrations or large volumes should be conducted in a biological safety cabinet (BSC).