|Morphology||Gram-positive cocci, usually occurs in clusters, nonspore forming, non-motile, coagulase positive, facultative anaerobes.|
|Growth Conditions||Tryptic Soy Broth|
|Host Range||Humans and Animals.|
|Modes of Transmission||Ingestion of food containing enterotoxins, contact with nasal carriers, contact with draining lesions or purulent discharges, also spread by person-to-person contact; Indirectly by contact with fomites, Indirectly or directly by contact with infected animals.|
|Signs and Symptoms||Accidental ingestion: Violent onset of severe nausea, cramps, vomiting, and diarrhea if preformed enterotoxin is present. Surface infections: Impetigo, follicutis, abscesses, boils, infected lacerations. Systemic infections: onset of fever, headache, myalgia, can progress to endocarditis, meningitis, septic arthritis, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, sepsis.|
|Infectious Dose||Virulence varies for different strains.|
|Incubation Period||30 minutes to 8 hours when consuming contaminated food with enterotoxin. Otherwise, typically 4 to 10 days. Disease may not occur until several months after colonization of mucosal surfaces.|
|Prophylaxis||Hand-hygiene; Elimination of nasal carriage by using topical mupirocin. Mupirocin also eliminates transient hand carriage by eliminating the mucosal reservoir.|
|Treatment||Incision and drainage for localized skin infections; antibiotic therapy for severe infections; Many strains resistant to antibiotics; Sensitivity must be determined for each strain.|
|Surveillance||Monitor for signs of food poisoning when ingestion occurs. Monitor for skin inflammation; isolation of organism from wound, blood, CSF or urine.|
|MSU Requirements||Report any exposures|
|Laboratory Acquired Infections (LAIs)||29 reported cases up to 1973 with 1 death. Most common cause of laboratory infection was accidental self-exposure via the mucous membranes by touching contaminated hands to face or eyes.|
|Sources||Contaminated food, blood, abscesses, lesion exudates, CFS, respiratory specimen, feces, and urine|
|BSL2||For all procedures involving known or potentially infected cultures.|
|ABSL2||For all procedures utilizing infected animals.|
|Small||Notify others working in the lab. Remove and don new PPE. Cover area of the spill with absorbent material and add 10 % Bleach. Allow 30 minutes hour of contact time. After 30 minutes and then cleanup and dispose of materials.|
|Large||For assistance, contact MSU's Biosafety Officer: Ryan Bartlett, firstname.lastname@example.org, (406) 994-6733
or Safety and Risk Management (406-994- 2711).
Flush eyes, mouth or nose for 5 minutes at eyewash station.
Wash area with soap and water for 5 minutes.
Immediately report incident to supervisor, complete a first report of injury report, and submit to Safety and Risk Management.
During business hours: Bridger Occupational Health 3406 Laramie Drive. Weekdays 8am -6pm. Weekends 9am-5pm
After business hours: Bozeman Deaconess Hospital Emergency Room 915 Highland Blvd Bozeman, MT
|Disinfection||Susceptible to 10 % Bleach, 70 % ethanol, and 2 % gluteraldehyde, chlorohexadine, formaldehyde, and 0.25 % benzalkonium chloride.|
|Inactivation||Inactivated by dry heat (1 hour at 160-170° C).|
|Survival Outside Host||Carcass and organs – 42 days; Skin – 30 minutes to 38 days; meat products – 60 days; floor – less than 7 days; glassware – 46 hours; sunlight – 17 days; UV light – 7 hours.|
|Minimum PPE Requirements||At minimum, gloves, closed toed shoes, lab coat, and appropriate face and eye protection prior to working with S. aureus. Additional PPE may be required depending on lab specific SOPs|
|Additional Precautions||Avoid injuries from contaminated sharp instruments, bites and scratches from infected animals, and direct contact with open skin or lesions of skin.|