Morphology Aerotolerant (oxygen-tolerant), anaerobic, gram positive diplococci, lancet-shaped, occur in pairs, or short, tight chains.
Growth Conditions Can be placed in various growth media and incubated at 37° C.
Health Hazards
Host Range Humans and Animals.
Modes of Transmission  Direct contact with aerosol droplets. Direct oral and mucous membrane contact. Indirectly through articles freshly soiled with respiratory discharges.
Signs and Symptoms  Shaking chills, chest pain, dyspnea, fever, productive cough, and sinusitis. Can cause middle ear infections. Can progress to pneumonia, bacteremia, meningitis.
Infectious Dose Unknown
Incubation Period  Generally 1-3 days
Medical Precautions/Treatment
Prophylaxis Penicillin
Vaccines Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23). Vaccination is recommended for all children under 5 years of age, all adults over 65 years of age, and high risk individuals of any age, including individuals with underlying medical conditions such as HIV or sickle-cell disease.
Treatment Variable susceptibility to: penicillin, tetracycline, cefotaxime, levofloxacin, erythromycin, and flouroquinolines, moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin, telithromycin, vancomycin, linezolid.
Surveillance Monitor for symptoms of infection
MSU Requirements  Report any exposures
Laboratory Hazards
Laboratory Acquired Infections (LAIs) 78 documented cases since 1999
 Sources Sputum, blood, respiratory secretions, throat swabs, parenteral inoculation.
Supplemental References
BMBL:5th Edition
Canadian MSDS
Containment Requirements
BSL2 For all procedures involving known or potentially infected cultures.
ABSL2 For all procedures utilizing infected animals.
Spill Procedures
Small Notify others working in the lab. Remove and don new PPE. Cover area of the spill with absorbent material and add 10 % Bleach. Allow 30 minutes hour of contact time. After 30 minutes and then cleanup and dispose of materials.
Large For assistance, contact MSU's Biosafety Officer: Ryan Bartlett,, (406) 994-6733
or Safety and Risk Management (406-994- 2711).
Exposure Procedures
Mucous membrane
Flush eyes, mouth or nose for 5 minutes at eyewash station.
Other Exposures
Wash area with soap and water for 5 minutes.
Immediately report incident to supervisor, complete a first report of injury report, and submit to Safety and Risk Management.
Medical Follow-up
During business hours: Bridger Occupational Health 3406 Laramie Drive. Weekdays 8am -6pm.  Weekends 9am-5pm
After business hours: Bozeman Deaconess Hospital Emergency Room 915 Highland Blvd Bozeman, MT
Disinfection Susceptible to 10 % Bleach, 70 % ethanol, and 2 % gluteraldehyde.
Inactivation Inactivated by moist heat (15 minutes at 121° C) and dry heat (1 hour at 160-170° C).
Survival Outside Host Mouse carcasses – 180 to 270 days, sputum at room temperature survives 7 days, and guaze survives 2 to 15 days.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Minimum PPE Requirements At minimum, gloves, closed toed shoes, lab coat, and appropriate face and eye protection prior to working with S. pneumoniae. Additional PPE may be required depending on lab specific SOPs.
Additional Precautions All procedures that may produce aerosols, or involve high concentrations or large volumes should be conducted in a biological safety cabinet (BSC).