|Morphology||Aerotolerant (oxygen-tolerant), anaerobic, gram positive diplococci, lancet-shaped, occur in pairs, or short, tight chains.|
|Growth Conditions||Can be placed in various growth media and incubated at 37° C.|
|Host Range||Humans and Animals.|
|Modes of Transmission||Direct contact with aerosol droplets. Direct oral and mucous membrane contact. Indirectly through articles freshly soiled with respiratory discharges.|
|Signs and Symptoms||Shaking chills, chest pain, dyspnea, fever, productive cough, and sinusitis. Can cause middle ear infections. Can progress to pneumonia, bacteremia, meningitis.|
|Incubation Period||Generally 1-3 days|
|Vaccines||Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23). Vaccination is recommended for all children under 5 years of age, all adults over 65 years of age, and high risk individuals of any age, including individuals with underlying medical conditions such as HIV or sickle-cell disease.|
|Treatment||Variable susceptibility to: penicillin, tetracycline, cefotaxime, levofloxacin, erythromycin, and flouroquinolines, moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin, telithromycin, vancomycin, linezolid.|
|Surveillance||Monitor for symptoms of infection|
|MSU Requirements||Report any exposures|
|Laboratory Acquired Infections (LAIs)||78 documented cases since 1999|
|Sources||Sputum, blood, respiratory secretions, throat swabs, parenteral inoculation.|
|BSL2||For all procedures involving known or potentially infected cultures.|
|ABSL2||For all procedures utilizing infected animals.|
|Small||Notify others working in the lab. Remove and don new PPE. Cover area of the spill with absorbent material and add 10 % Bleach. Allow 30 minutes hour of contact time. After 30 minutes and then cleanup and dispose of materials.|
|Large||For assistance, contact MSU's Biosafety Officer: Ryan Bartlett, firstname.lastname@example.org, (406) 994-6733
or Safety and Risk Management (406-994- 2711).
Flush eyes, mouth or nose for 5 minutes at eyewash station.
Wash area with soap and water for 5 minutes.
Immediately report incident to supervisor, complete a first report of injury report, and submit to Safety and Risk Management.
During business hours: Bridger Occupational Health 3406 Laramie Drive. Weekdays 8am -6pm. Weekends 9am-5pm
After business hours: Bozeman Deaconess Hospital Emergency Room 915 Highland Blvd Bozeman, MT
|Disinfection||Susceptible to 10 % Bleach, 70 % ethanol, and 2 % gluteraldehyde.|
|Inactivation||Inactivated by moist heat (15 minutes at 121° C) and dry heat (1 hour at 160-170° C).|
|Survival Outside Host||Mouse carcasses – 180 to 270 days, sputum at room temperature survives 7 days, and guaze survives 2 to 15 days.|
|Minimum PPE Requirements||At minimum, gloves, closed toed shoes, lab coat, and appropriate face and eye protection prior to working with S. pneumoniae. Additional PPE may be required depending on lab specific SOPs.|
|Additional Precautions||All procedures that may produce aerosols, or involve high concentrations or large volumes should be conducted in a biological safety cabinet (BSC).|