Montana State University

Priscu Research Group

Department of Land Resources
and Environmental Sciences

334 Leon Johnson Hall
Bozeman, MT 59717

Tel: (406) 994-3250
Fax: (406) 994-5863

Polar Night Data

MCM LTER Routine Limnological Sampling during Polar Night season

Physical Parameters

ICE: Lake Ice Thickness and Piezometric Lake Depth

Biological Parameters

CHL: Chlorophyll-a Extraction
PHYTO: Phytoplankton Enumeration and Biomass
PPR: Primary Production Determined by 14C Incorporation
BAC: Bacteria Enumeration and Biomass
THY/LEU: Bacterial Production Determined by 3H Thymidine and Leucine Incorporation

Chemical Parameters

PH: Hydrogen Ion Concentration
DO: Dissolved Oxygen by Winkler Titration
DIC: Dissolved Inorganic Carbon
CN: Particulate Organic Carbon and Nitrogen
PP: Total Particulate Phosphorus
NUT: Dissolved Nutrients (NO3, NO2, NH4, soluble reactive phosphorus)
DOC/TN: Dissolved Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen
AN/CAT: Anions and Cations

Profiling Instruments

CTD: Seabird 25 Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth
Fluoroprobe: Underwater Spectral Fluorometer
PNF: Biospherical Profiling Natural Fluorescence
PAR Logged: Underwater Time Series -Phototsynthetically Active Radiation Logged During Primary Production Experiment (dates noted below are ending dates of 24 hour logging period)
PAR Profile: Underwater Profile - Phototsynthetically Active Radiation and Attenuation

For a description of methods see "Limnological Methods" on Data page.

Physical, Biological and Chemical Parameters


Location/ Limno Run Date Depths (m) Parameters
Fryxell L1 11 Nov 07 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 17.5 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT, ICE.
Hoare L1 16 Nov 07 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 25, 29 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT, ICE.
East Lake Bonney L1 23 Nov 07 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, 37 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT, ICE.
West Lake Bonney L1 25 Nov 07 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, 38 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT, ICE.
Vanda 7 Dec 07 4, 10, 20, 30, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 62, 64, 68, 70, 73.5 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT, ICE.
Fryxell L2 5 Dec 07 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 17.5 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT, ICE.
Hoare L2 10 Dec 07 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 25, 29 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT, ICE.
East Lake Bonney L2 13 Dec 07 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, 37 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT, ICE.
West Lake Bonney L2 15 Dec 07 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, 38 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT, ICE.
Fryxell L3 28 Dec 07 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 17.5 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), BAC,  NUT, DOC/TN.
Hoare L3 31 Dec 07 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 25, 29 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), BAC,  NUT, DOC/TN.
East Lake Bonney L3 1 Jan 08 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, 37 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), BAC,  NUT, DOC/TN.
West Lake Bonney L3 2 Jan 08 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, 38 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), BAC,  NUT, DOC/TN.
Fryxell L4 19 Jan 08 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 17.5 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT, ICE.
Hoare L4 23 Jan 08 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 25, 29 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT, ICE.
East Lake Bonney L4 26 Jan 08 4.5, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, 37 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT, ICE.
West Lake Bonney L4 29 Jan 08 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, 38 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT, ICE.
Fryxell L5 6 Feb 08 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 17.5 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT.
Hoare L5 10 Feb 08 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 25, 29 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT.
East Lake Bonney L5 13 Feb 08 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, 37 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT.
West Lake Bonney L5 16 Feb 08 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, 38 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT.
Fryxell L6 27 Feb 08 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 18 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT, ICE.
Hoare L6 1 Mar 08 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 25, 29 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT, ICE.
East Lake Bonney L6 27 Feb 08 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, 37 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT, ICE.
West Lake Bonney L6 1 Mar 08 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, 38 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT, ICE.
Fryxell L7 5 Mar 08 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 17.5 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT, ICE.
Hoare L7 8 Mar 08 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 25, 29 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT, ICE.
East Lake Bonney L7 4 Mar 08 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, 37 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT, ICE.
West Lake Bonney L7 7 Mar 08 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, 38 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT, ICE.
Fryxell L8 12 Mar 08 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 17.5 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT, ICE.
Hoare L8 17 Mar 08 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 25, 29 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT.
East Lake Bonney L8 11 Mar 08 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, 37 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT.
West Lake Bonney L8 14 Mar 08 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, 38 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT.
Vanda 14 Mar 08 4, 10, 20, 30, 40, 45, 50, 64, 68 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT, ICE.
Fryxell L9 20 Mar 08 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT.
Hoare L9 25 Mar 08 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT, ICE.
East Lake Bonney L9 18 Mar 08 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 15, 18, 20, 22 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT.
West Lake Bonney L9 21 Mar 08 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 20, 25 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT.
Fryxell L10 28 Mar 08 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 17.5 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT, ICE.
Hoare L10 31 Mar 08 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 25, 29 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT, ICE.
East Lake Bonney L10 25 Mar 08 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 15, 18, 20, 22 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT.
West Lake Bonney L10 29 Mar 08 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 20, 25 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT.
Fryxell L11 8 Apr 08 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 17.5 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT.
East Lake Bonney L11 1 Apr 08 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, 37 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT.
West Lake Bonney L11 4 Apr 08 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, 38 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), PPR (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT.
East Lake Bonney L12 10 Apr 08 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, 37 CHL, PHYTO (selected depths), BAC, THY/LEU (selected depths), PH, DO, DIC, CN, PP, NUT, DOC/TN, AN/CAT, ICE.

Profiling Instruments

Location/ Limno Run Date Measurement
Fryxell L1 12 Nov 07 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PNF, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
Hoare L1 17 Nov 07 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PNF, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
East Lake Bonney L1 24 Nov 07 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PNF, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
West Lake Bonney L1 26 Nov 07 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PNF, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
Vanda 7 Dec 07 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PNF, PAR Profile
Fryxell L2 6 Dec 07 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PNF, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
Hoare L2 11 Dec 07 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PNF, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
East Lake Bonney L2 14 Dec 07 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PNF, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
West Lake Bonney L2 16 Dec 07 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PNF, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
Fryxell L3 28 Dec 07 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PNF, PAR Profile
Hoare L3 3 Jan 07 CTD, PNF, PAR Profile
East Lake Bonney L3 29 Dec 07 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PNF
East Lake Bonney L3 1 Jan 08 PAR Profile
West Lake Bonney L3 2 Jan 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PNF, PAR Profile
Fryxell L4 20 Jan 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
Hoare L4 24 Jan 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
East Lake Bonney L4 27 Jan 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
West Lake Bonney L4 30 Jan 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
Fryxell L5 7 Feb 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
Hoare L5 11 Feb 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
East Lake Bonney L5 14 Feb 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
West Lake Bonney L5 17 Feb 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
Fryxell L6 28 Feb 08 PAR Profile, PAR Logged
Fryxell L6 1 Mar 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe
Hoare L6 1 Mar 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe
Hoare L6 2 Mar 08 PAR Profile, PAR Logged
East Lake Bonney L6 28 Feb 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
West Lake Bonney L6 2 Mar 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
Fryxell L7 6 Mar 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
Hoare L7 9 Mar 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
East Lake Bonney L7 5 Mar 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
West Lake Bonney L7 8 Mar 08 PAR Profile, PAR Logged
West Lake Bonney L7 12 Mar 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe
Fryxell L8 13 Mar 08 PAR Profile, PAR Logged
Fryxell L8 15 Mar 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe
Hoare L8 18 Mar 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
East Lake Bonney L8 12 Mar 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PAR Logged
East Lake Bonney L8 13 Mar 08 PAR Profile
West Lake Bonney L8 15 Mar 08 PAR Logged
West Lake Bonney L8 16 Mar 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe
Vanda 14 Mar 08 Fluoroprobe
Fryxell L9 21 Mar 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
Hoare L9 26 Mar 08 PAR Profile, PAR Logged
East Lake Bonney L9 19 Mar 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PAR Logged
East Lake Bonney L9 20 Mar 08 PAR Profile
West Lake Bonney L9 22 Mar 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
Fryxell L10 29 Mar 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
Hoare L10 1 Apr 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
East Lake Bonney L10 26 Mar 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
West Lake Bonney L10 30 Mar 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
Fryxell L11 8 Apr 08 Fluoroprobe, PAR Profile
East Lake Bonney L11 2 Apr 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PAR Logged, PAR Profile
West Lake Bonney L11 3 Apr 08 CTD, Fluoroprobe, PAR Logged (4 Apr), PAR Profile
East Lake Bonney L12 10 Apr 08 Fluoroprobe, PAR Profile

Principal Investigators

Dr. Mike Lizotte, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh

Photophysiological studies were performed in Dry Valley lakes to derive parameters for use in primary production models, and to determine physiological changes in the algae as they responded to decreasing light.

  • PE: Photosynthesis-irradiance experiments
  • ap: Phytoplankton absorption
  • Chl: Chlorophyll
  • Spectroradiometer: Measures the spectrum of light (300-900nm) underwater and at the surface.
Date Lake Activity
24 Feb 08 East Bonney photosynthesis-irradiance (PE) experiments on 6m, 13m, 18m, and Chlamydomonas raudensis culture
24 Feb 08 East Bonney phytoplankton absorption (ap) and chlorophyll (Chl) samples collected for 6m, 13m, 18m, and Chlamydomonas raudensis culture
26 Feb 08 West Bonney PE experiments on 6m and 13m
26 Feb 08 West Bonney ap and chl samples collected for 6m and 13m
29 Feb 08 East Bonney Spectroradiometer cast, inside polarhaven
1 Mar 08 Fryxell Spectroradiometer cast, inside polarhaven
1 Mar 08 Fryxell PE experiments on 7m
1 Mar 08 Fryxell ap and chl samples collected for 7m
1 Mar 08 Hoare Spectroradiometer cast, inside polarhaven
2 Mar 08 East Bonney PE experiments on 6m and 13m
2 Mar 08 East Bonney ap and chl samples collected for 6m, 13m, 18m, 20m
2 Mar 08 West Bonney PE experiments on 6m and 13m
2 Mar 08 West Bonney ap and chl samples collected for 6m, 10m and 13m
3 Mar 08 West Bonney Spectroradiometer cast, inside and outside polarhaven
6 Mar 08 East Bonney Spectroradiometer cast, inside and outside polarhaven
10 Mar 08 West Bonney PE experiments on 13m
10 Mar 08 West Bonney chl samples collected for 13m
11 Mar 08 East Bonney PE experiments on 6m and 13m
11 Mar 08 East Bonney ap, chl, and DIC samples collected for 6m and 13m
11 Mar 08 East Bonney HPLC pigment samples collected for 6m and 13m
11 Mar 08 East Bonney Spectroradiometer cast, inside polarhaven
13 Mar 08 West Bonney PE experiments on 6m and 13m
13 Mar 08 West Bonney ap, chl, and DIC samples collected for 6m and 13m
13 Mar 08 West Bonney HPLC pigment samples collected for 6m and 13m
14 Mar 08 Vanda PE experiments on 10m, 40m and 64m
14 Mar 08 Vanda ap, chl, and DIC samples collected for 10m, 40m and 64m
14 Mar 08 Vanda HPLC pigment samples collected for 10m, 40m, and 64m
14 Mar 08 Vanda Spectroradiometer cast, outside
16 Mar 08 West Bonney PE experiments on 13m (lamp failed -- could derive Ek)
16 Mar 08 East Bonney Spectroradiometer cast, outside and inside
17 Mar 08 East Bonney PE experiments on 6m and 13m
17 Mar 08 East Bonney ap, chl, and DIC samples collected for 6m and 13m
20 Mar 08 Fryxell Spectroradiometer cast, outside and inside
26 Mar 08 East Bonney Spectroradiometer albedo
27 Mar 08 West Bonney PE experiments on 6m and 13m
27 Mar 08 West Bonney ap, chl, and DIC samples collected for 6m and 13m
28 Mar 08 East Bonney PE experiments on 6m and 13m
28 Mar 08 East Bonney ap, chl, and DIC samples collected for 6m and 13m
29 Mar 08 East Bonney Spectroradiometer cast, outside and inside
30 Mar 08 East Bonney PE experiments on 18m and Chlamydomonas raudensis culture
30 Mar 08 East Bonney ap, chl, and DIC samples collected for 18m and Chlamydomonas raudensis culture
1 Apr 08 West Bonney Spectroradiometer cast, outside and inside
2 Apr 08 West Bonney PE experiments on 6m and 13m
2 Apr 08 West Bonney ap, chl, and DIC samples collected for 6m and 13m
4 Apr 08 East Bonney PE experiments on 6m and 13m
4 Apr 08 East Bonney ap, chl, and DIC samples collected for 6m and 13m
6 Apr 08 East Bonney Spectroradiometer cast, outside and inside
6 Apr 08 East Bonney Fluoroprobe cast, inside Polarhaven
8 Apr 08 Fryxell PE experiments on 7m
8 Apr 08 Fryxell ap, chl, and DIC samples collected for 7m
10 Apr 08 East Bonney PE experiments on 6m and 13m
10 Apr 08 East Bonney ap, chl, and DIC samples collected for 6m and 13m

Dr. Jill Mikucki, Dartmouth College

Chemoautotrophy during POLAR NIGHT

Genomic and substrate incorporation experiments were designed to address the hypothesis that chemoautotrophic bacterial production provides a source of new carbon to the ecosystem during polar night. These experiments included Stable Isotope Probing (SIP) using 13C substrates to look at active microbial populations, Microautoradiography-Flourescent In Situ Hybridiation (MAR_FISH) to explore structure function relationships of individual bacterial cells and their carbon substrate choice, and lastly the construction of functional gene clone libraries to look for the genes that mediate specific carbon assimilation pathways. Incubations were performed and samples were collected and preserved while in the field. Samples will be analyzed at Jill's home institution.

Experiments

  • Stable isotope probing incubations using 13C substrates (acetate, glucose and bicarbonate) on samples from WLB (15m, 20m, 25m), ELB (13m, 20m) and FRX (9m, 11m)
  • Bulk sample collection for RNA/DNA analyses from WLB (15m, 20m, 25m), ELB (13m, 20m) and FRX (9m, 11m) throughout season
  • Sulfate samples (for S and O natural isotope abundance measurements); profiles collected from WLB, ELB, FRX, HOR, VAN
  • Incubations for Microautoradiography/FISH (Light Dark - Bicarbonate and Dark - Glucose, Tdr, Leu, Acetate) on WLB 15m
  • 14C-Bicarbonate incorporation experiments for WLB 15m (Light/Dark; + Phosphate; 3.0um filtered) at 72h and 96h.

Collection Date Experiment Sample Location Comments
24 Feb 08 Start glucose and bicarbonate SIP experiments ELB: 13, 20m  
25 Feb 08 Start glucose and bicarbonate SIP experiments WLB: 15, 20, 25m  
2 Mar 08 Start acetate SIP experiments FRX: 9,10, 10.5, 11, 12, 16, 18m  
2 Mar 08 Start glucose and bicarbonate SIP experiments FRX: 9, 11m  
2 Mar 08 Collect sulfate profile (barite ppt) FRX: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 17.5m Terminate: 30-Mar-08
13 Mar 08 Start acetate SIP experiments WLB: 15, 20, 25m  
14 Mar 08 Start acetate SIP experiments VAN: 68m Terminate: 17-Mar-08
14 Mar 08 Collect for nucleic acids VAN: 64m, 68m  
16 Mar 08 Start acetate SIP experiments ELB: 13, 20m  
16 Mar 08 Filter 40L for bulk analyses ELB: 13, 20m  
17 Mar 08 Filter 60L for bulk analyses WLB: 25m  
18 Mar 08 Filter 60L for bulk analyses WLB: 15, 20m  
24 Mar 08 Start MAR-FISH incubations-ORGANIC C substrates WLB: 15m Terminate: in time course
25 Mar 08 Collect DOC profile (McKnight) FRX: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 17.5m  
25 Mar 08 Filtered (20Ls-9m; 50Ls-11m) for bulk analyses FRX: 9, 11m  
25 Mar 08 Samples for RNA FRX: 9, 11m  
2 Apr 08 Start MAR-FISH incubations-BICARBONATE WLB: 15m Terminate: in time course
2 Apr 08 Start radioisotope incorporation experiment WLB: 15m  
6 Apr 08 Samples for RNA WLB: 15, 20, 25m  
7 Apr 08 Samples for RNA ELB: 13, 20m  

Dr. Rachael Morgan-Kiss, Miami University

Collections

 
Date Lake Depth (m) Process
24 Feb 08 West Bonney 5,13,15,20 Background filtration for pigments, lipids and molecular assays
25 Feb 08 East Bonney 5,13,18,20 Background filtration for pigments, lipids and molecular assays
2 Mar 08 West Bonney 6,13,15,20 Background filtration for pigments, lipids and molecular assays
2 Mar 08 East Bonney 6,13,18,20 Background filtration for pigments, lipids and molecular assays
9 Mar 08 West Bonney 6,13,15,20 Background filtration for pigments, lipids and molecular assays
9 Mar 08 East Bonney 6,13,18,20 Background filtration for pigments, lipids and molecular assays
16 Mar 08 West Bonney 6,13,15,20 Background filtration for pigments, lipids and molecular assays
16 Mar 08 East Bonney 6,13,18,20 Background filtration for pigments, lipids and molecular assays
24 Mar 08 West Bonney 6,13,15,20 Background filtration for pigments, lipids and molecular assays
24 Mar 08 East Bonney 6,13,18,20 Background filtration for pigments, lipids and molecular assays
29 Mar 08 East Bonney 6,13,18,20 Background filtration for pigments, lipids and molecular assays
30 Mar 08 West Bonney 6,13,15,20 Background filtration for pigments, lipids and molecular assays
10 Apr 08 East Bonney 6,13,18,20 Background filtration for pigments, lipids and molecular assays

Experiment

Date Lake Depth (m) Process
23 Feb 08 East Bonney 17 Set-up and T0 samples
1 Mar 08 East Bonney 17 T1 - 2 tubes removed
8 Mar 08 East Bonney 17 T2 - 2 tubes removed
15 Mar 08 East Bonney 17 T3 - 2 tubes removed
22 Mar 08 East Bonney 17 T4 - 2 tubes removed
30 Mar 08 East Bonney 17 End of expt. T5 - 7 tubes removed

Dr. John Priscu, Montana State University

Nutrient Bioassay

A phytoplankton nutrient bioassay experiment was conducted on the shallow and deep chlorophyll layers in ELB and WLB and at 7 m in Fryxell. Samples were collected on 2 March 2008.

DOC Characterization

A submersible UV spectrofluorometer was used to characterize DOC in ELB and WLB on 25 and 26 February, respectively.

Don Juan Pond substrate incorporation

Experiments based on substrate incorporation were conducted on Don Juan Pond were processed in March 2008. The experiments were started in December 2007.


Collaborating Scientists

Dr. Elanor Bell, Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory

Viral studies in Dry Valley Lakes
Viral and bacterial abundance and productivity at 4 depths in the East and West lobes of Lake Bonney were followed to determine the response of viral-bacterial interactions to decreasing light.

  • SYBR Gold nucleic acid staining of viral and bacterial cells and enumeration under epifluorescence microscopy
  • Viral lysogeny determined during 24 hour incubations of lake water. Induction using Mitomycin C.
  • Viral lysis determined during 24 hour incubations of concentrated bacteria in virus-free lake water

Date Lake Depth (m) Process Experiment
24 Feb 08 West Bonney 5,13,15,20 Background counts with SYBR Gold Lysogeny I - 24 incubation
25 Feb 08 East Bonney 5,13,18,20 Background counts with SYBR Gold Lysogeny I - 24 incubation
2 Mar 08 West Bonney 6,13,15,20 Background counts with SYBR Gold  
2 Mar 08 East Bonney 6,13,18,20 Background counts with SYBR Gold  
6 Mar 08 Don Juan Pond N/A Background counts with SYBR Gold  
9 Mar 08 West Bonney 6,13,15,20 Background counts with SYBR Gold Lysogeny II - 24 incubation
9 Mar 08 East Bonney 6,13,18,20 Background counts with SYBR Gold Lysogeny II - 24 incubation
14 Mar 08 Vanda 10,40,64 Background counts with SYBR Gold  
16 Mar 08 West Bonney 6,13,15,20 Background counts with SYBR Gold Lytic production I - 24 incubation
16 Mar 08 East Bonney 6,13,18,20 Background counts with SYBR Gold Lytic production I - 24 incubation
24 Mar 08 West Bonney 6,13,15,20 Background counts with SYBR Gold Lysogeny III - 24 incubation
24 Mar 08 East Bonney 6,13,18,20 Background counts with SYBR Gold Lysogeny III - 24 incubation
29 Mar 08 East Bonney 6,13,18,20 Background counts with SYBR Gold  
30 Mar 08 West Bonney 6,13,15,20 Background counts with SYBR Gold  
4 Apr 08 West Bonney 6,13,15,20 Background counts with SYBR Gold Lytic production II - 24 incubation
4 Apr 08 West Bonney 6,13,15,20   Lysogeny IV - 24 incubation
4 Apr 08 East Bonney 6,13,18,20 Background counts with SYBR Gold Lytic production II - 24 incubation
4 Apr 08 East Bonney 6,13,18,20   Lysogeny IV - 24 incubation
10 Apr 08 East Bonney 6,13,18,20 Background counts with SYBR Gold  


Dr. Jackie Parry & Dr. Jill Thurman, Lancaster University in association with Dr. Johanna Laybourn-Parry, Keele University and Roger Pickup, Centre of Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster

The primary objective of this work was to monitor protist abundance and grazing within the lakes throughout the transition period from 24 hour light to 24 hour darkness. Of particular interest was the phytoflagellate community. It was hypothesized that grazing by protist groups capable of mixotrophy, such as the cryptophytes, would be up-regulated as the light was lost. Grazing was monitored through use of heat-killed bacteria, live bacteria and uptake of fluorescent dextrans.

Classic Experiments

  • Abundance/Biovolume:
    • Bacterial abundance (SYBR gold stained)
    • Bacterial biovolume (DAPI stained)
    • PNAN(Photosynthetic Nanoflagellate)/HNAN(Heterotrophic Nanoflagellate)
    • abundance (DAPI stained)
    • PNAN/HNAN biovolume (DAPI stained)
    • PNAN/HNAN identification (Glut fixed for SEM)
    • Ciliate identification (Lugols Iodine fixed)
  • DTAF grazing:
    • Grazing experiments using DTAF bacteria at 20% indigenous bacterial concentration. Performed at 2oC and at relevant PAR value from field data. Fixed at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min. Average No of prey per PNANs and HNANs over time to yield grazing rates.
  • Dextran uptake:
    • Dextrans (4, 9, 38 and 580Kda) added at 1% final concentration and fixed after 60 min. % population of PNAN and HNAN taking them up.
  • Prey selection:
    • Live GMOs (genetically modified organisms) added in couples – Blue and Green (each at 10% indigenous bacterial conc.) and Blue and Yellow (each at 10% indigenous bacterial conc.). Performed at 2oC and at relevant PAR value from field data. Fixed at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 min. Average No of each coloured prey per PNANs and HNANs over time to yield grazing rates. Grazing rates on these live bacteria compared to dead DTAF bacteria also possible.
  • Algal diversity:
    • 1L water aseptically filtered onto 47mm SuporR200 filters with a pore size of 0.2µm. Filters dried in desiccator, placed in eppendorfs and stored frozen ( -20oC). Transport to Centre of Ecology and Hydrology at 4-10oC.  Molecular
      analysis of algal community using DGGE.
  • Phytoplankton isolation:
    • Water diluted and incubated at different light intensities and temperatures. All collected at the end of the period, transferred to eppendorfs for transport to Lancaster.

Schedule of Experiments (Classic experiments plus additional experiments (color coded))


Lake Date Experiment
Hoare 1 Mar 08 Classic experiments at 4 depths: 5/6m, 12/13m, 20m & 26m

 

1 Mar 08 20m water stored in dark at 4oC and DTAF grazing re-tested after 1 week later at PAR used before storage, at 2oC (fixed after 1h).
  1 Mar 08 Bacteria isolated from each depth and diversity recorded. Communities kept as a live mixture and a DTAF mixture for later grazing experiments.
  17 Mar 08 Classic experiments at 4 depths: 5/6m, 12/13m, 20m & 26m
  17 Mar 08 6m water stored in dark at 4oC and DTAF grazing re-tested after 1, 2, 3 weeks later at (i) PAR used before storage and (ii) in the dark, at 2oC (fixed after 1h). 13m water tested after 2 and 3 weeks storage.
  31 Mar 08 Classic experiments at 4 depths: 5/6m, 12/13m, 20m & 26m
  31 Mar 08 Water from each depth incubated with live culturable bacteria (at x10 indigenous bacterial conc.) from all depths, e.g. 6m water incubated with 6m bacteria, 12m bacteria, 20m bacteria and 26m bacteria (plus controls). Fixed after 1 weeks incubation in the dark at 2oC. 12m water also incubated with DTAF-stained bacterial communities (to test live vs dead).
West Lake Bonney 7 Mar 08 Classic experiments at 3 depths: 5m, 10m & 13m
  7 Mar 08 Bacteria isolated from each depth and diversity recorded. Communities kept as a live mixture and a DTAF mixture for later grazing experiments.
  21 Mar 08 Classic experiments at 3 depths: 5m, 10m & 13m
  4 Apr 08 Classic experiments at 3 depths: 5m, 10m & 13m
  4 Apr 08 Water from each depth incubated with live culturable bacteria (at x10 indigenous bacterial conc.) from all depths, e.g. 6m water incubated with 6m bacteria, 13m bacteria and 20m bacteria (plus controls). Fixed after 1 weeks incubation in the dark at 2oC.
East Lake Bonney 12 Mar 08 Classic experiments at 3 depths: 5m, 13m & 20m
  12 Mar 08 Nutrient addition experiment on 13m water. P added at 2µmol and incubated in light and dark for 4 days. Then classic DTAF grazing experiment with sampled being fixed at 30 and 60 min.
  12 Mar 08 Bacteria isolated from each depth and diversity recorded. Communities kept as a live mixture and a DTAF mixture for later grazing experiments.
  24 Mar 08 Classic experiments at 3 depths: 5m, 13m & 20m
  4 Apr 08 Classic experiments at 3 depths: 5m, 13m & 20m
  4 Apr 08 Water from each depth incubated with live culturable bacteria (at x10 indigenous bacterial conc.) from all depths, e.g. 6m water incubated with 6m bacteria, 10m bacteria and 13m bacteria (plus controls). Fixed after 1 weeks incubation in the dark at 2oC.
  10 Apr 08 Classic experiments at 6m and 13m only.
Lake Vanda 14 Mar 08 Part of the classic experiments – did Abundance/ Biovolume (3 depths: 10m, 40m and 64m) and DTAF on 10m and 64m at 4oC and 64m at 19oC (no 4L water for 40m provided).

Dr. Steve Jepsen, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)

Lake Fryxell Ice Sediment Melt Experiment

A 1 cm thick layer of sediment was put onto the surface of Lake Fryxell in a 1.2 x 0.9 m plot. The sediment was allowed to melt into the ice, and measurements of sediment depth and pieziometric lake water level relative to the upper ice table were taken every 2-4 weeks between 10 Nov 07 and mid-Jan 08.


Graduate and Post-Graduate Students

Chao Tang, PhD student, University of California, Riverside & Microbial Observatory (MO)

Lake water samples were collected at both MCM-LTER and Microbial Observatory depths and included:
DNA/RNA filters: supor-200 0.2um filters
FISH filters: 47mm 0.2um polycarbonate filters
DAPI filters: 25mm 0.2um polycarbonate filters black
Frozen stock: 4.5ml+500ml DMSO

Date Location Depth (m) Sample Vol (L)
2 Mar 08 Fryxell 6, 9, 12, 18 DNA/RNA filters, frozen stock 4.2
2 Mar 08 Fryxell 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 18 FISH, DAPI filters 0.25
25 Mar 08 Fryxell 6, 9, 12, 18 DNA/RNA filters, frozen stock 4.2
25 Mar 08 Fryxell 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 18 FISH, DAPI filters 0.25
11 Mar 08 East Bonney 6, 13, 25, 37 DNA/RNA filters, frozen stock 4.2
11 Mar 08 East Bonney 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, 37 FISH, DAPI filters 0.25
12 Mar 08 West Bonney 6, 13, 18, 38 DNA/RNA filters, frozen stock 4.2
13 Mar 08 West Bonney 4.5, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, 38 FISH, DAPI filters 0.25
14 Mar08 Vanda 4.5, 45 DNA/RNA filters, frozen stock, FISH, DAPI filters 4.2
6 Mar 08 Don Juan Pond N/A DNA/RNA filters, frozen stock 8.4

Microbial Observatory depths in above chart include:
Fryxell: 6, 9, 12, 18 m
East Bonney: 6, 13, 25, 37 m
West Bonney: 6, 13, 18, 38 m
Vanda: 4.5, 45 m

1 sediment core was collected from Don Juan Pond, dissected and stored at -80 C.


Suni Shah, Post-Doc, Harvard University

Archaeal lipids in lake water samples

Lake water samples were collected from 3 lakes and filtered onto 47mm GFF filters to be extracted for archaeal lipids at Harvard University.


Location Depth (m) # of Filters Total filtered (L)
Fryxell 25 3 4
East Lake Bonney 11 4 9
Vanda 64 2 4
Vanda 68 2 2.5

Tristy Vick, PhD student, University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Amino acids in lake water samples

Lake water samples were collected from 4 lakes for amino acid analysis. 40 ml of sample were filtered through 0.2 um 25 mm nylon membrane filters. Filters were dried and stored at room temperature. Filtrate was stored at -20C. All were shipped to the Desert Research Institute in Las Vegas at -20C.


Date Location Depth (m)
27 Feb 08 East Lake Bonney 5, 8, 10, 12, 13, 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, 37
1 Mar 08 West Lake Bonney 5, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, 38
5 Mar 08 Lake Fryxell 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 17.5
8 Mar 08 Lake Hoare 5, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 25

MIRADA: Microbial Inventory Research Across Diverse Aquatic LTERs. Samples were collected for the MIRADA project as part of their Microbial Biodiversity Survey and Inventory across all the major aquatic (marine and freshwater) Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites. Sampling involved sterile collection of 1 or more liters of water followed by processing of the samples onto 0.22 um sterivex filters for DNA extraction, filtration of a portion of the sample onto membrane filters to provide an archive sample for future Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH), and archival cryopreservation of a portion of the samples in both DMSO and glycerol for future culturing.

Date Location Depth (m)
25 Mar 08 Lake Fryxell 6, 9
12 Mar 08 West Lake Bonney 13, 18