Five Stages of ESRD

 

Stage 1

Hyperfiltration, which is an increase in the flow of blood through the kidneys and the glomeruli, occurs.

Kidneys become larger.

GLOSSARY

Hyperfiltration- an increase in the flow of blood through the kidneys and the glomeruli

Albumin- blood protein in the urine

Creatinine- blood created by the normal breakdown of muscle activity. Increases quantities are found in the advanced stages of renal disease

Urea-nitrogen- the nitrogen of urea as distinguished from nitrogen in blood proteins

Dialysis- process of diffusing blood across a semipermeable membrane to remove toxic materials and to maintain fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance in cases of impaired kidney function or absence of the kidneys

Transplant- to transfer tissue or an organ from one part to another

Stage 2

Glomeruli begin to show damage from stage 1 effects and from the altered metabolism of the cells in the glomeruli.

Blood protein (albumin) leaks into the urine.

Loss of albumin increases from 20 to 200 micrograms per minute or 10 times the normal loss of 20 micrograms per minute.

Stage 3

Loss of albumin into the urine exceeds 200 micrograms per minute which is greater than 10 times the normal loss.

Glomeruli suffers more damage.

Kidneys begin to lose their ability to filter waste.

The blood levels of the waste products, creatinine and urea-nitrogen, rise.

Stage 4

Glomerular filtration decreases.

Large amounts of protein go through the urine.

High blood pressure occurs.

Blood levels of creatinine and urea-nitrogen rise further.

Stage 5

End-stage renal diseases (ESRD) occurs.

Kidney failure occurs and dialysis or a transplant is needed.

 

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