A variety of possible variations in genes can occur. Which makes finding a genetic cure for diabetes extremely difficult.
Point mutation: variations of a single base pair or of a very small part of a gene. Meaning if a base pair is changed in any way, a mutation will occur.
Deletion: The chromosome breaks in two places and a segment is missing when the breaks heal.
Translocation: Two chromosomes break at different points. When the deleted gene from one chromosome attaches to the other chromosome, chromosomes with more or fewer copies of normal genes result.
Inversion: A broken part of the chromosome is reattached to the same chromosome, but in the reverse order.