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Earth Sciences

Department of Earth Sciences

http://www.montana.edu/wwwes/

The department offers the Bachelor of Science degree in Earth Sciences which may be earned in any one of six options (Geography, Geographic Information Science/Planning, Geology, Geohydrology, Paleontology, and Snow science). Each option tabulated below requires courses from within the Department of Earth Sciences and courses outside the department. Some of the courses fulfill both department requirements and University Core Curriculum requirements. Academic minors are offered in Spatial Analysis/GIS and Earth Science Teaching, and Water Resources.

The Department also offers a Master of Science Degree and Doctor of Philosophy in Earth Sciences. Thesis and course work for these graduate degrees usually emphasize some aspect of geology, geography, or geobiology with specific course and research plans approved by a graduate committee. The department collaborates with the interdisciplinary Master of Science in Land Rehabilitation and with the Big Sky Institute.

Geography Option

The Geography Option offers students a liberal university education with an emphasis in geography. The Geography option provides a general education as well as the more specialized knowledge and skills necessary to pursue many career objectives. Geographers find professional opportunities in urban and land use planning as well as spatial analysis in the public and private sectors, analysis of regions, resource and environmental management, as well as the application of geographical skills in map making (cartography), remote sensing, and geographic information science (GIS). Geography also offers an outstanding background for more advanced education in environmental law, international business, resource planning, and other specialized graduate school opportunities. Students may enhance their employment opportunities with a Master's degree, or a Ph.D. if college teaching or advanced research positions are of interest.

The student, in consultation with an adviser, is given the opportunity to develop a program to meet his or her own particular interests and needs through a series of core geography courses and an emphasis in physical or human geography or an approved minor. The Geography Option introduces students to lower division course work in world regional, physical, and human geography. These courses emphasize the importance of spatial relationships, the global distributions of physical and cultural phenomena, the complex interplay between natural and human systems, and the factors contributing to the evolution of the earth's varied landscapes. In addition, advanced skills courses and a capstone course prepare the student to apply their training in a variety of jobs and/or graduate school.

Geology Option

The Geology Option is degree program designed for students who are motivated to apply the principles of chemistry, physics, and mathematics to the study of the Earth's surface and interior. There are growing opportunities for employment in the public and private sectors in fields such as petroleum geology, mining geology, seismology (including earthquake and volcanic risk assessment), hydrology (surface and ground water) natural-hazard geology, environmental clean-up and containment of environmental hazards, mitigation of future environmental problems related to development, preservation of water resources (both surface and ground water), and the study of the processes of climate change. The optimal degree for employment and advancement in the geological sciences in the private sector is the Master's Degree, and the undergraduate Geology Option is an excellent preparatory degree for advanced graduate studies. Some students interested in college teaching or advanced research may require a Ph.D. degree.

In the Geology Option, students are given the opportunity to learn in the tremendous natural laboratory that surrounds Bozeman. Course work progresses from core courses which all students must take (introductory geology, mineralogy, igneous petrology, metamorphic petrology, sedimentary petrology, historical geology, sedimentation and stratigraphy, structural geology, tectonics, geomorphology, two geographic information science courses and field geology (a summer capstone course)) to a variety of elective courses in geology, paleontology, hydrology, and remote sensing. These courses prepare the student for a variety of jobs and/or graduate school.

Geohydrology Option

The Geohydrology option is designed for students interested in the relationships between water, people, and Earth. A graduate in this option is prepared for a career emphasizing pollution mitigation, hazardous waste disposal, environmental impact assessment, water resource development, stream channel restoration and morphology, and fundamental research in surface or ground water hydrology. Prospective employers include local, state, and federal research or regulatory agencies; consulting firms; and hydrologic or environmental divisions of major corporations. Because the geohydrology program deals with fluids and geology, the energy industry is also sometimes a source of employment (petroleum geology, coal-bed-methane extraction and mitigation, geothermal energy resources). Most students find it to their advantage to undertake graduate work prior to permanent employment. The optimal degree for employment and advancement in the geological sciences in the private sector is the Master's Degree, and the undergraduate Geology Option is an excellent preparatory degree for advanced graduate studies. Some students interested in college teaching or advanced research may require a Ph.D. degree.

The core courses in the Geohydrology option is similar to that in geology but more Mathematics is required. Elective courses focus on water courses across campus. Selection of elective courses from disciplines outside Earth Sciences develops additional expertise in an area of water resource investigations of interest to the student. These courses prepare the student for a variety of jobs and/or graduate school.

GIS/Planning Option

The GIS (Geographic Information Science)/Planning Option in the Department of Earth Sciences is designed to offer students a mix of technical skills and academic training that prepares them for careers in local, state, and federal planning as well as opportunities in private consulting firms that are involved in the planning process. The GIS/Planning Option recognizes the growing importance of Geographic Information Systems and Science in our society and how these analytic tools are applied in a wide variety of settings. The GIS/Planning Option takes advantage of excellent GIS facilities, lab space, expertise, and software available on campus and allows students to learn in an active hands-on environment. Students are prepared as map makers (cartographers) spatial analysts, and planners. The Department of Earth Sciences has connections with various local, state, and federal planning agencies within Montana and throughout the West. As part of their training, students may also be able to take advantage of internship opportunities as a way to further prepare for a wide variety of professional careers within the fields of planning and resource management. The optimal degree for employment and advancement in the in GIS/Planning area is the Master's Degree, and this undergraduate option is an excellent preparatory degree for advanced graduate studies. Some students interested in college teaching or advanced research may require a Ph.D. degree.

At the Freshman and Sophomore level, students take basic courses in physical and human geography as well as introductory skills classes in GIS and cartography, statistics, Intermediate Tech Writing, and design graphics. In addition, courses in economics and political science lay the foundation for understanding the broader context of the planning process. As juniors and seniors, students complete an advanced 2-course sequence in GIS/Spatial Analysis (GPHY 384/411) and take skills-related coursework in Aerial Photo/Remote Sensing and in GPS technologies. Students also take courses in geographical planning, tourism and recreational planning, and in the politics of state and local government. All students also complete basic coursework in soils and geomorphology because these variables are critical in the planning process. Electives in advanced classes in urban and economic geography, public/urban policy and political science, water resources, and/or ecology allow students to specialize in areas of particular interest and develop their own emphases in subjects related to the planning process. All students take the Geography Capstone course (GPHY 425) which emphasizes the broad integrative skills of Geography.

Paleontology Option

The paleontology option focuses on understanding fossils within their geologic context, while Montana's geology provides the opportunity for hands-on fieldwork. The paleontology option in the Department of Earth Sciences is designed for those students who have a strong interest in either invertebrate or vertebrate fossils (evolution, biology of ancient organisms, the environment in which the organism lived, and the changes the fossil has undergone since death). Students who study paleontology find employment with natural history museums (e.g. fossil preparation, collection, curation, exhibit design, education), as scientific illustrators, writers, paleontology consultants for energy resource companies, and resource specialists for local, state, and federal land-management agencies or parks. Because students who study this option are trained in core geology courses, employment may be found in areas outside paleontology that require geologic expertise. Graduate training beyond the bachelor's degree desirable for those seeking careers in the paleontology (normally a master's degree) or in teaching and/or research (typically a doctorate).

This option combines training in geology, and paleontology. The paleontology option builds on courses that form the core of the traditional geology option, while providing strong background in paleontology through four required courses (including the paleontology field course) and two elective courses. All of the paleontology courses offered through the department provide upper division credits. Internships and summer field research experience is available to some students. These courses prepare the student for a variet of jobs and/or graduate school. These courses prepare the student for a variety of jobs and/or graduate school.

Snow Science Option

The snow program in the Department of Earth Sciences provides a foundation for understanding the distribution of snow (geography), mechanics of snow (physics, engineering), composition of snow (chemistry), variability of snow (statistics) and effects of snow (ecology, hydrology). It is also one of the best preprofessional programs in the world for those who want to carry their interests in snow into a professional career. Employment ranges from ski patrol, director of snow safety, avalanche-center employee, snow scientist with a federal agency, to work in consulting in the area of land use planning, transportation engineering or avalanche protection. The optimal degree for employment and advancement in snow science is the Master's Degree. Some students interested in college teaching or advanced research may require a Ph.D. degree. The snow science option is an excellent preparatory degree both for employment and for advanced graduate studies.

In the Snow Science Option, students progress through a broad-based core of courses that includes introductory geology and geography, calculus, chemistry, physics, weather and climate, geomorphology, glacial geology, and mountain geography. In addition to the core of snow science courses, students focus on snow geography or snow mechanics. Snow geography examines biogeography, ecology and spatial analysis of factors important to snow distribution, the interaction between snow plants and animals, snow melt, and the analysis of factors which influence the spatial distribution of snow or snow avalanche factors. Snow mechanics prepares the student to study the mechanics of snow as it relates to transportation, avalanche release, and the impact of snow on buildings (loading and avalanche impact forces), as well as snow metamorphism and snow strength. The capstone course is snow dynamics and accumulation. Students are strongly encouraged to consider a graduate degree in snow science to prepare for professional jobs, but such training is not always required.

Undergraduate Research Participation

Research opportunities are available to undergraduate students who demonstrate the interest and ability. Senior-level students may enroll in ERTH 490 (Undergraduate Research), which provides the opportunity to participate in a research project under the guidance of a faculty member. Successful completion of ERTH 490 credits requires that the student write a senior thesis report and orally present and defend the results in a public forum, such as an annual conference of a professional society. Collaborative opportunities exist with the university's Undergraduate Scholars Program.

Departmental Honors in Earth Sciences

The Department of Earth Sciences awards Departmental Honors at graduation to students who demonstrate exceptional undergraduate performance through the following criteria: 1) a minimum 3.5 grade-point average (GPA) in the major; 2) a minimum 3.0 GPA overall; 3) completion of at least 4 credits of undergraduate research with a grade of "B" or better; and 4) completion of a Senior Thesis (ERTH 490)--written, bound, and orally presented and defended by the last day of classes prior to graduation.


Curricula in Earth Sciences


GEOGRAPHY OPTION

Some courses listed below are offered alternate years. A student's course sequence may differ from that shown depending upon the date the student enters the program and the availability of courses.

Freshman Year Credits
GEO 101IN--Intro to Physical Geology 4
GPHY 111CS--Intro to Physical Geography 4
GPHY 141D--Geography of World Regions 3
University Core and Electives 19
30
Sophomore Year Credits
GPHY 121D--Human Geography 3
GPHY 284--Intro to GIS Science & Cartog 3
STAT 216Q--Introduction to Statistics 3
STAT 217Q--Interm Statistical Concept 3
One Year Modern Lang 8
University Core and Electives 10
30
Junior and Senior Years Credits
GPHY 384--Adv GIS and Spatial Analysis 3
Take one of the following:**
ERTH 303--Weather and Climate 3
GPHY 365--Geographical Planning 3
** Students may take both ERTH 303 and GPHY 365 and count the second class towards their upper division geography thematic courses.
Take 5 courses from the following and
1 methods course OR 4 courses from
the following and 2 methods courses:
     ERTH 307--Principles of Geomorphology 4
     ERTH 432R--Surface Water Resource 3
     GEO 420--Hydrology 3
     ERTH 450R--Snow Dynamic & Accumulation 3
     ERTH 455--Physiography of the U.S. 3
     GPHY 411--Biogeography 3
     GPHY 325--Cultural Geography 3
     GPHY 321--Urban Geography 3
     GPHY 322--Economic Geography 3
     GPHY 431--Historical Geography 3
     GPHY 461--Tourism Planning 3
     GPHY 441R--Mountain Geography 4
     GPHY 446--East Asia in the Global System 3
     GPHY 445--Regional Geography 3
Methods Courses
     GPHY 484R--Appl GIS & Spatial Analysis 3
     LRES 426--Remote Sens & Digital Image Proc 3
     LRES 357--GPS Fund & Appl in Mapping 3
     STAT 410--Appl Mult Regression 3
Capstone Course
Take the following in your senior year:
     GPHY 425--Geographic Thought 3
Selected minor or minor emphasis 21
University Core and Electives 7-10
60

Students, in consultation with their Earth Science advisor, must also select a minor from a minor tabulated in the catalog OR one of the emphases listed below.

Human Geography Emphasis Credits
Take 12 credits from the following:
     ANTH 101D--Intro to Anthropology 3
     PSCI 210IS--Intro to American Government 3
     PSCI 260--Intro to State and Local Govt 3
     SOCI 101IS--Introduction to Sociology 3
     ECNS 101IS--Economic Way of Thinking 3
     ECNS 202--Principles of Macroeconomics 3
     ERTH 212RN--Yellowstone Scientific Lab 4
Advisor-approved upper division electives 9

The advisor-approved upper division electives (minimum 9 credits) will be selected from course offerings in Anthropology, Economics, History, Native American Studies, Political Science, Sociology, as well as Earth Science, Geology, and Geography (1 course only). The courses used here cannot be used to fulfill the other course requirements in the Geography Option.

Physical Geography Emphasis Credits
BIOL 101IN--Biology of Organisms 4
CHMY 121IN--Intro to Gen Chemistry 4
LRES 201IN--Soil Resource3
ERTH 212RN--Yellowstone Scientific Lab 4
Advisor-approved upper division electives 9

The advisor-approved upper division courses (minimum 12 credits) will be selected from course offerings in the Animal and Range Science, Biology, Civil Engineering, Entomology, and Land Resources and Environmental Sciences, as well as Earth Science, Geology, and Geography (1 course only). The courses used here cannot be used to fulfill the other course requirements in the Geography Option.

A minimum of 120 credits is required for graduation; 42 of these credits must be in courses numbered 300 and above.


GEOHYDROLOGY OPTION

Some courses listed below are offered in alternate years. A student's course sequence may differ from that shown depending upon the date the student enters.

Freshman Year F S
CHMY 141--College Chemistry I    4
CHMY 143--College Chemistry II     4
GEO 101IN--Intro to Physical Geology     4
GPHY 111CS--Intro to Physical Geography     4
M 171Q--Calculus I     4
M 172Q--Calculus II     4
University Core and Electives     3 3
15 15
Sophomore Year F S
GEO 205R--Mineralogy    4
GEO 211--Early History and Evolution     3
LRES 201IN--Soil Research     3
M 273Q--Multivariable Calculus     4
M 274--Intro to Diffential Equations     4
PHYS 211--Gen & Mod Phys I     4
PHYS 212--Gen & Mod Phys II     4
University Core and Electives     4
15 14
Junior Year F S
ERTH 307--Principles of Geomorphology     4
ERTH 303--Weather and Climate     3
GEO 306 or 308--Igneous Petrology (or) Metamorphic Petrology     3
GEO 307--Sedimentary Petrology     3
GEO 309--Sedimentation and Stratigraphy     4
GEO 315--Structural Geology     4
STAT 332--Stat for Scientists & Engin     3
University Core and Electives     6
17 14
Summer of Junior or Senior year:
     GEO 429 --Field Geology     6
Senior Year F S
BIOL 101CS--Biology of Organisms    4
ERTH 432R--Surface Water Resource     3
ERTH 440--Hydrogeology 3
Select Two of the four courses below:
ERTH 450R--Snow Dynamic & Accumulation 3
LRES 444--Watershed Hydrology 3
LRES 445--Watershed Analysis 3
LRES 453--Soil & Environmental Physics 3
Unversity Core and Electives     8 6
15 10

NOTE: A minimum of 120 credits is required for graduation; 42 of these credits must be in courses numbered 300 and above.


GEOLOGY OPTION

Freshman Year F S
CHMY 141--College Chemistry I    4
CHMY 143--College Chemistry II     4
GEO 101IN--Intro to Physical Geology     4
GPHY 111CS--Intro to Physical Geography     4
GEO 211--Early History and Evolution     3
M 171Q--Calculus I     4
M 172Q--Calculus II     4
University Core and Electives     3 3
15 15
Sophomore Year F S
BIOL 101IN--Biology of Organisms    4
ERTH 307--Principles of Geomorphology     4
GPHY 284--Intro to GIS Science & Cartog     3
GPHY 384--Adv GIS and Spatial Analysis      3
GEO 205--Mineralogy     4
PHYS 205--College Physics I     4
PHYS 206--College Physics II     4
University Core and Electives     5
15 15
Either GPHY 111 or GPHY 384 may be taken; if GPHY 111 is taken, GPHY 384 may be taken as an elective.

Junior Year F S
GEO 306--Igneous Petrology     3
GEO 307--Sedimentary Petrology     3
GEO 308--Metamorphic Petrology     3
GEO 309--Sedimentation and Stratigraphy     4
GEO 315--Structural Geology     4
STAT 332--Stat-Scientist & Engr     3
University Core and Electives     3 7
15 15
Summer of Junior or Senior Year
     GEO 429--Field Geology 6
Senior Year F S
     GEO 433--Global Tectonics 3
University Core and Electives    12 12
12 12


Geology Electives
Take 5 courses from the following three blocks, at least three of which must come from the Geology block
  
Geology Block Credits
Take 3 to 5 courses from the following block:
     ERTH 455--Physiography of the U. S.    3
     GEO 310--Invertebrate Paleontology     3
     GEO 411--Vertebrate Paleontology 3
     GEO 417--Taphonomy:Fossil Record 3
     GEO 440--Volcanology     3
     GEO 445--Glacial Geology     3
     GEO 492--Individual Problems**     3
     GEO 491--Special Topics     3
     ERTH 490R--Undergraduate Research 1-8

**NOTE: Can be repeated, but can only be counted once (each) as a Geology elective

Hydrology Block Credits
1 course from the following can be counted as an elective
     ERTH 432R--Surface Water Resource    3
     ERTH 440--Hydrogeology     3
     ERTH 450R--Snow Dynamic & Accumulation     3

Remote Sensing/GIS Block Credits
1 course from the following can be counted as an elective.
     GPHY 384--Adv GIS and Spatial Analysis# 3
     GPHY 484R--Appl GIS & Spatial Analysis     3
     LRES 426--Rem Sens & Digit Image     3

#NOTE: Can be counted as an elective if not already used as a departmental requirement.

A minimum of 120 credits is required for graduation; 42 of these credits must be in courses numbered 300 and above.

Students may choose one emphasis within the Geology Option, but are not required to do so. The two optional emphases are: 1) the Active Geologic Processes and Hazards Emphasis and 2) the Crystallography, Mineralology and Earth Materials Emphasis.

Students taking either emphasis must fulfill all the requirements of the Geology Option. Students in the Active Geologic Processes and Hazards Emphasis must take the following five courses. The four upper level courses may be used for their upper level electives requirement in the Geology Option.

Active Geologic Processes and
Hazards Emphasis
Credits
GEO 103CS--Intro to Envrmntl Geology    4
GEO 439--Geophysics     3
GEO 440--Volcanology     3
Take one of the following:
     GPHY 384--Adv GIS and Spatial Analysis     3
ERTH 490R--Undergraduate Research 3

Students in the Crystallography, Mineralology and Earth Materials emphasis must take the following courses in addition to those required in the Geology Option.

Crystallography, Mineralology
and Earth Materials Emphasis
Credits
Sophomore Year
     CHMY 211--Elements of Organic Chemistry     5
     M 273Q--Multivariable Calculus     4
     M 274--Intro to Diffential Equations     4
Junior Year
     CHMY 311--Analytical Chem-Quant Analysis    3
     CHMY 361--Elements of Physical Chemistry     4
     CHMY 362--Elements of Physical Chem Lab     1
Senior Year
     GPHY 491--Special Topics    3
     GPHY 490R--Undergraduate Research 3
     LRES 355--Environ Chemistry     3

GIS/PLANNING OPTION

COURSES REQUIRED IN DEPARTMENT

Freshman Year Credits
GEO 101IN--Intro to Physical Geology 4
GPHY 111CS--Intro to Physical Geography 4
GPHY 141D--Geography of World Regions 3
ECNS101IS--Economic Way of Thinking 3
CHMY 121IN/141--General/College Chemistry 4
Take one of the following:
     ECNS102IS--Principles of Macroeconomics    3
     ECNS132--Economics and the Environment 3

University Core and Electives

9
30
Sophomore Year
GPHY 121D--Human Geography 3
GPHY 284--Intro to GIS Science & Cartog 3
STAT 216Q--Introduction to Statistics 3
STAT 217Q--Interm Statistical Concepts 3
PSCI 210IS--Intro to American Government 3
Take one of the following:
     WRIT 201--College Writing II 3
     WRIT 221--Intermediate Tech Writing 3
Take one of the following:
     ME 115 & 116 --Engineering Design Graphics    2
     TE 230--2-D Computer Aided Drafting 2

University Core and Electives

10
30
Junior Year
GPHY 384--Adv GIS and Spatial Analysis 3
PSCI 260--Intro to State & Local Govt 3
LRES 201IN--Soil Resource 3
LRES 357--GPS Fund & Appl in Mapping 3
Take two of the following:
     GEOG 331--Urban Geography    3
     GPHY 322--Economic Geography 3
     ERTH 432--Surface Water Resources 3
Take one of the following:
     LRES 426--Rem Sens & Digit Image 3

University Core and Electives

3 or 4
30
Senior Year
ERTH 307--Principles of Geomorphology 4
GPHY 425--Geographic Thought 3
GPHY 484R--Applied GIS & Spatial Analysis 3
GPHY 461--Tourism & Recreational Planning 3
Take Three of the following:
     BIOL 303--Principles of Ecology    3
     LRES 352--Watershed Management 3
     LRES 421--Holistic Thought & Management 3
     PSCI 365--Pub Policy Issues and Analysis 3
     PCSI 441--Montana Local Politics 3
Additional Advisor-approved 300+ courses in ERTH, GPHY, or LRES 3

University Core and Electives

5
30

NOTE: A minimum of 120 credits is required for graduation; 42 of these credits must be in courses numbered 300 or above.


SNOW SCIENCE OPTION

COURSES REQUIRED IN DEPARTMENT
Freshman Year Credits
GPHY 111CS--Intro to Physical Geography 4
GPHY 141D--Geography of World Regions 3
M 171Q--Calculus I 4
M 172Q---Calculus II 4
University Core and Electives* 6
*Snow Geography concentration take BIOL 101
30
Sophomore Year Credits
CHMY 141--College Chemistry I 4
CHMY 143--College Chemistry II 4
PHYS 211--College Physics I 4
PHYS 212--College Physics II 4
ERTH 303--Weather and Climate 3
University Core and Electives** 11
**Snow Geography concentration take GPHY 284, GPHY 121
Snow Mechanics concentration take M 273 and M 274, EM 251
30
Junior Credits
     ERTH 307--Principles of Geomorphology 4
University Core and Electives*** 17
***Snow Geography concentration take GPHY 411 and GPHY 384
Snow Mechanics concentration take EM 253 and CE 312
30
SENIOR Credits
     ERTH 450--Snow Dynamics & Accumulation 3
     GPHY 441R--Mountain Geography 4
     GEO 445--Glacial Geology 3
University Core and Electives**** 17
****Snow Geography concentration take GPHY 325 or GPHY 365, GPHY 484, ERTH 432
Snow Mechanics concentration take EM 415 and CE 320 and CE 331
30
SELECT ONE OF THE FOLLOWING TWO EMPHASES

SNOW GEOGRAPHY

Credits
     BIOL 101IN--Biology of Organisms 3
     GPHY 121D--Human Geography 3
     GPHY 284--Intro to GIS Science & Cartog 3
     GPHY 411--Biogeography3
     GPHY 384--Adv GIS and Spatial Analysis 3
     GPHY 484R--Applied GIS & Spatial Analysis 3
     STAT 332--Stat for Scientists & Engineers 3
     STAT 446--Sampling 33
     STAT 410--Methods for Data Analysis 3
     GPHY 325 315 or GPHY 365 3
     ERTH 432R or LRES 4443
^^Students may find that M 221 Introduction to Linear Algebra will help with STAT 410
33

Additional 2 credits of upper division credits needed to graduate

SNOW MECHANICS

Credits
     I&ME 350--Appl Engineering Data Analysis 2 2
     M 273Q--Multivariable Calculus 4
     M 274--Intro to Differential Equations 4
     EM 251--Statics and Particle Dynamics 3
     EM 252--Rigid Body Mechanics 3
     EM 253--Mechanics of Materials 3
     EM 335--Mechanics of Fluid3
     CE 312--Structures I 3
     CE 320--Geotechnical Engineering 3
     CE 331--Engineering Hydrology 2
     CE 332--Engineering Hydraulics 2
     EM 415--Adv Mechanics of Solids 3
35

PALEONTOLOGY OPTION

COURSES REQUIRED IN DEPARTMENT
Freshman Year Credits
CHMY 141--College Chemistry I 4
CHMY 143--College Chemistry II 4
GEO 101IN--Intro to Physical Geology 4
GPHY 111CS--Intro to Physical Geography 4
GEO 211--Early History and Evolution 4
M 171Q---Calculus I 4
M 172Q---Calculus II 4
University Core and Electives 6
30
Sophomore Year Credits
BIOL 101IN--Biology of Organisms 4
ERTH 307--Principles of Geomorphology 4
GPHY 284--Intro to GIS Science & Cartog 3
GPHY 384--Adv GIS and Spatial Analysis 3
GEO 205R-Mineralogy 4
PHYS 205-- College Physics I 4
PHYS 206-- College Physics II 4
University Core and Electives 4
30

NOTE: Either GPHY 111 or GPHY 384 may be taken; if GPHY 111 is taken, GPHY 384 may be taken as an elective.

Junior Credits
     GEO 306--Igneous Petrology 3
     GEO 307--Sedimentary Petrology 3
     GEO 308--Metamorphic Petrology 3
     GEO 309--Sedimentation and Stratigraphy 4
     GEO 315--Structural Geology 4
     STAT 332--Stat for Scientist & Engin 3
University Core and Electives 11
30
Summer of Junior or Senior Year
     GEO 429--Field Geology 6
SENIOR Credits
GEO 433--Global Tectonics 3
University Core and Electives 18
24
UPPER DIVISION PALEONTOLOGY COURSE ELECTIVES

In order to complete the Paleontology Option, students complete the following course requirements, in addition to those listed above.

REQUIRED COURSES
Credits
     GEO 310-- Invertebrate Paleontology 3
     GEO 330--Paleontology Lab Techniques 2
     GEO 411-- Vertebrate Paleontology 3
     GEO 417-- Taphonomy:Fossil Preservation 3
     GEO 419* --Field Paleontology 2

Taken during summer of Sophomore or Junior year

ELECTIVE COURSES
IT IS STRONGLY RECOMMENDED THAT STUDENTS TAKE AT LEAST TWO OF THE FOLLOWING FOUR COURSES
Credits
     GEO 312-- Dinosaur Paleontology 3
     GEOL 316--Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy4
     GEO 413--Macroevolution/Fossil Record 3
     GEO 491--Special Topics {} 3

{}NOTE: Only GEO 491 courses that cover a specific paleontology topic are applicable.

NOTE: A minimum of 120 credits is required for graduation; 42 of these credits must be in courses numbered 300 or above.


Geographic Information Science (GIS) MINOR (NON-TEACHING)

Not available to Geography majors

Required Courses (minimum grade C- required)
GPHY 284--Intro to GIS Science & Cartog     3
GPHY 384--Adv GIS and Spatial Analysis      3
GPHY 484R--Applied GIS & Spatial Analysis     3
STAT 216Q--Introduction to Statistics     3
LRES 357--GPS Fundamentals      3
LRES 426--Remote Sensing & Digital Image      3
Credits18
Optional Courses (minimum of 3)
CE 201--Surveying      3
STAT 217Q--Intermediate Statistical Concepts      3
TE 230--2-D Computer Aided Drafting     3
CE 463--Photogrammetry      2
3
Minimum Credits8
Minimum Total Credits26

 


WATER RESOURCES MINOR (NON-TEACHING)

The Water Resources Minor is designed to encourage a student from any discipline to explore water resources beyond course work in their major. As a result, the minor includes courses from the College of Agriculture, the College of Engineering, and the College of Letters and Science. The minor is administered by a board with the following representatives: Brian McGlynn (Agriculture and Outreach), Michael Brody (Education), Otto Stein (Engineering), Jerry Johnson (Letters and Science), and Steve Custer (Letters and Science). Any board member may serve as an advisor for the minor. The chair of the board serves as the curriculum review officer.

The minor is composed of water policy and water science courses. Each student must take a minimum of two courses from the Water Management and Policy Group, two courses from the Water Science and Technology Group, and three additional courses from either list. Up to six credits of 470, 476, or 490 from any rubric, which are related to water science or policy in the judgement of the minor advisor may be used as part of the minor. No more than twelve credits may be used to simultaneously fulfill both Water Resources Minor requirements and University Core or requirements for the student's major. Course substitutions are allowed only by appeal to and approval by the Water Resources Minor Administrative Board and should be sent to the Chair of the Board (Steve Custer, Earth Sciences) after review by one of the advisors. The written appeal should identify the substitution and present a brief rationale. The Water Resources Minor requires a minimum of 21 credits.

Water Management and Policy Course List Credits
Take two of the following:
     ECNS 132--Econ & the Environment     3
     ECNS 332--Econ of Natural Resources     3
     ECNS 432R--Benefit-Cost Analysis     3
     HSTA 470--American Environmental History     3
     SOCI 470--Environmental Sociology     3
      Any 492, 498, or 490 course(s) related
     to water management/policy
3-6
 
Water Science and Technology Course List Credits
Take two of the following:
     AOT 425--Water Management    3
     ARNR 345--Riparian Ecol & Mgmt    3
     BIOL 303--Principles of Ecology     3
     BIOL 404--Limnology     3
     BIOL 433--Phycology     3
     BIOL 439--Stream Ecology     3
     CE 331--Engineering Hydrology     2
     CE 340--Principles of Environmental Engineering     3
     CE 442--Environmental Science     3
     GPHY 111CS--Intro to Physical Geography     4
     ERTH 432R--Surface Water Resources     3
     ERTH 440---Hydrogeology     3
     ERTH 450R--Snow Dynamic & Accumulation     3
     F&WL 301--Prin of Fish/Wildlife Mgmt 3
     ERTH 303--Weather and Climate     3
     LRES 201--Watershed Management     3
     LRES 355--Soil & Env Chemistry     3
     LRES 444--Watershed Hydrology     3
     LRES 445--Watershed Analysis     3
     LRES 453--Soil & Env Physics     3
     LRES 456--Pollution Science     3
     Any 491, 492, 498, or 490 course(s)
     related to water science/technology
3-6
Take at least three additional courses from either the Water Management and Policy or Water Scienc and Technology list.
Total Minimum Required Credits 21

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