This bibliography is the first in a series that catalogs most of the references that have been published on parasites and diseases in the American bison. Also included, whenever appropriate, are references that deal with different species of wildlife. The references cover a time period up through 1992.
We were motivated to produce these bibliographies for several reasons. Perhaps the most important was the difficulty we encountered in obtaining many of the articles from local libraries. We discovered after reading several excellent review articles on parasites or parasites and diseases in bison (Wade, et al., 1975; Miller, 1977; Tessaro, 1986), that over sixty percent of the references cited had to be obtained through inter- library loan. We don't believe that the holdings in our library at Montana State University are an exception and thus have concluded that individuals interested in parasites and diseases of the American bison would welcome our efforts to place all of these articles under single covers. Volume I of this series covers PARASITES OF THE AMERICAN BISON, Volumes II and III will cover brucellosis and tuberculosis, respectively. We are currently producing additional bibliographies.
The subject index covers parasite genera and species and is indexed to the reference number. Finally, at the end of the bibliography we have included an additional subject index covering other topics besides the parasite genera and species.
The authors are indebted to the Dr. Ken Throlson American Bison Foundation for the generous support that has helped to make these publications possible.
SUBJECT REFERENCE PAPER # Helminths: Nematodes (roundworms) Capillaria spp. (capillary worm) 56,58 Chabertia ovina (large-mouthed bowel worm) 7,56,57 Cooperia spp. (small intestinal worm) 7,9,11,16,23,29 44,53,56,57,59 Dictyocaulus spp. (lung worm) 6,7,10,12,13,15 16,23,26,27,40,44 45,50,52,53,56,57 Grosspiculagia lyrata 23,56,57 Haemonchus contortus (barberpole worm) 7,16,23,26,44,49 50,52,56,57,59 Nematodirus spp. (thread-necked worm) 5,7,56,57 Oesophagostomum spp. (nodular worm) 10,16,23,26,44 50,53,56,57,59 Ostertagia ostertagi (brown stomach worm) 10,16,23,56,57,59 Ostertagia bisonis 2,7,12,16,23,39 44,53,56,57 Teladorsagia=(Ostertagia) trifurcata 7,39,57 Setaria=(Artionema) spp. (filarial worm) 3,7,10,11,13,16,23 27,42,44,53,56,57 Skrjabinagia bisonis 56 Trichostrongylus axei 16,23,56,57,59 (small abomasum worm) Trichuris spp. (whipworm) 23,36,40,44,56,57,59 Helminths: Cestodes (tapeworms) Echinococcus granulosus (hydatid) 10,27,56,57 Moniezia spp. (tapeworm) 7,10,14,16,23,40,44 45,50,53,56,57 Helminths: Trematodes (flatworms) Fasciola hepatica 4,23,29,33,40,44 (common bile duct liver fluke) 56,57 Fascioloides magna (deer fluke) 10,11,16,27,29,33 44,53,54,55,56,57 Cotylophoron cotylophorum 30 Paramphistomum microbothrioides (rumen fluke)30,56 Protozoa: Vahlkampfia spp. 44,56 Sappinia diploidea 44,56 Babesia bigemina 44,62 Babesia major 25,56 Cercomonas & Copromonas spp. 44,46 (flagellates) Monas spp. 44,56 Eimeria bovis, E. bukidnonensis, 32,51,56 E. auburnensis, E. brasiliensis, E. canadensis Coprozoic protozoa 41 Sarcocystis spp. 10,11,18,19,20,24,27 41,48,56,57 Sporozoa spp. 44 Toxoplasma spp. 21,22,56 Trypanosoma spp. 34,35,56 Rickettsia: Anaplasma marginale 43,47,56,60,61 Arthropods: Insects Aedes spp. (mosquito) 45 Bovicola spp. (chewing louse) 27 Damalinia sedecimdecembrii 27,44,56,57 Cochliomyia macellaria (screwworm) 44,52,56 Haematobia irritans (horn fly) 28,45 Hypoderma lineatum (common grub) 10,11,27,40,44 50,56,57 Musca autumnalis (face fly) 1,8,45,56 Simulium spp. (black fly) 45 Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly) 45 Symphoromyia spp. (snipe fly) 45 Tabanidae (horse and deer flies) 45 Arthropods: Arachnids Boophilus annulatus (ixodid or hard tick) 44,62 Dermacentor andersoni (ixodid or hard tick) 31,37,44,47,56,57 D. nigrolineatus 50,56,57 Speleognathus australis (nasal mite) 17,44,56,57 Psoroptes spp. 38
Although bovine manure has heretofore been considered the substrate of choice for propagation of Musca autumnalis de Geer, evidence presented here suggests that oviposition and larval development may successfully occur in manures of other animal species. Fresh bison and swine feces served as substrates for larval development comparable to that of bovine manure, as evidenced by similar upual weight and percent adult emergence. Oviposition also readily occurred in fresh feces of bison and swine. Horse manure supported satisfactory larval development but was an unsatisfactory oviposition site, apparently because of its coarse texture. Fresh sheep and deer feces were unsatisfactory for larval development and adult oviposition, apparently because of their pelleted form and lower moisture contents. Development and oviposition readily occurred in such lyophilized feces reconstituted to a moisture content comparable to that of fresh bovine manure.
Detailed illustrated redescriptions are given of two abomasal trichostrongylids of ruminants which have heretofore not been morphologically clearly defined. The redescriptions are based on male and female paratypes of Ostertagia bisonis Chapin, 1925, and males of O. mossi Dikmans, 1931, collected from the type host and locality. The holotype and allotype of O. bisonis and what remains of the syntypes of O. mossi were also studied, as were males from various hosts of O. bisonis, some of which were previously reported as O. bellae nomen nudum and O. orloffi Sankin, 1930. The literature is reviewed, host and distribution records noted, and the two species compared morphologically.
Three species of Setaria Viborg, 1795, nematodes of the peritoneal cavity, were found among 439 specimens collected from 12 species of ungulates in the United States and Canada. Setaria equina (Abildgaard, 1789) was found among specimens from horses (Equus caballus), mules (E. asinus X E. caballus), a burro (E. asinus), and a cow (Bos taurus); Setaria labiatopapillosa (Perroncito, 1882) from cattle (Bos taurus), antelope (Antilocapra americana), bison (Bison bison), moose (Alces alces), a deer (Odocoileus hemionus), a bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), a caribou (Rangifer caribou), and a horse; and Setaria yehi Desset, 1966, from deer (Odocoileus hemionus and O. virginianus), caribou (Rangifer caribou and R. arcticus), and bison. Nomenclatural problems involving S. labiatopapillosa and S. yehi are discussed and definitive conclusions are given. Information is given for all three species on geographic distribution, morphology, and intraspecific variation. A key with comparative illustrations is furnished for the easy identification of the worms.
In 1966 a practicing veterinarian in Afton, Wyoming found abcesses and flukes in the liver of a bison which had been pastured on a ranch in the southern limit of Star Valley, WY. The Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory examined the liver tissue, found many large abcesses, recovered two adult flukes from a partially abscessed bile duct and identified the fluke as Fasciola hepatica.
A single page of the book is included which describes various species of Nematodirus, and the most common hosts. A specific morphological description of Nematodirus helvetianus May, 1920, is given and described as the one species that occurs in bison.
The lungworms found in wildlife of Wyoming is discussed. In particular, dictyocaulosis, an important lung disease in elk caused by metastrongylid nematodes, is emphasized. Dictyocaulus hadweni is the species infecting elk. Frequently, ruminants other than elk, such as bison and domestic cattle, carry this same species.
A study was undertaken to determine the incidence, distribution, and relative importance of helminths in wild ruminants of South Dakota. Big game species examined and numbers of helminth species found were as follows: 83 white-tailed deer (5 species of nematodes, 3 of cestodes), 30 mule deer (3 spp. of nematodes, 3 of cestodes), 60 pronghorn antelope (13 spp. of nematodes, 2 of cestodes), 20 elk (5 spp. of nematodes, 2 of cestodes), 5 bison (7 spp. of nematodes, 1 of cestode), 3 bighorn sheep (6 spp. of nematodes, 2 of cestodes), and one mountain goat (3 spp. of nematodes). There were new host records for several species of nematodes. The absence of trematodes was conspicuous. The pronghorn antelope was the most heavily parasitized of the 7 species sampled. Since they occur on livestock rangelands in the weatern part of the state, they may have some importance as reservoirs for helminths of sheep and cattle. The presence of lungworms, Protostrongylus spp., in the bighorn sheep and mountain goat merits further investigation, as lungworms have been implicated as limiting factors in populations elsewhere.
Musca autumnalis de Geer (Diptera: Muscidae) was noted as a pest of bison at the National Bison Range, Moiese, MT, in 1966 and 1967. The flies also occurred also around the eyes of deer, antelope, and horses. In 1967 adult flies were reared and the immature stages were collected from bison droppings obtained at the Range. Adults first were collected in 1967 from 4 widely scattered locatities (from 6,500 to 9,245 ft.) and several different habitats within Yellowstone National Park in Montana and Wyoming. Flies also were reared from and seen on cattle and their droppings near Gardiner, MT (5,300 ft.), for the first time in 1967. In 1967, 9 range bison at the Range exhibited eye disorders, ranging from discoloration to eyeball eruption (blindness). Such eye problems had not previously been observed in these animals. The difficulties inherent in managing these animals make it impossible to deal with eye disorders in bison as can be done with domesticated stock. The success of M. autumnalis in the absence of regular insecticide treatments of animals and its present and potential role as a pest of various big game animals in wildlife areas is discussed, as well as the prospect of reservoir populations of flies able to disperse out of wildlife areas into surrounding agricultural areas.
Cooperia surnabada and C. oncophora are two similar trichostrongylid nematodes of the small intestine of ruminants, and have been confused with one another, with the former being mistaken for the more common latter species. Males of both species, which had been deposited in the National Parasite Collection between 1911 and 1967, were examined to determine their prevalence, geographic distribution, and hosts. The findings revealed that 99% of the males were collected north of the 37th parallel. This suggests that C. oncophora and C. surnabada are much more common in the north; however, the results may indicate the location of interested collectors rather than the distribution of the two species. In summary, C. oncophora and C. surnabada are common parasites of cattle in the United States, and are frequently found together in an estimated ratio of 85:15, respectively. Besides cattle, both species infect domestic and bighorn sheep, bison, antelope, and deer.
In 1907, over 700 buffalo (bison) were purchased by the Canadian Government in Montana, and maintained at Buffalo Park, Wainwright, Alberta. This herd grew to greater than 7,000 by February 1923 and were being reduced by 250 as a commencement in retarding the rapid increase. Of these sacrificed in 1923, anatomy, pathological conditions, as well as parasite classifications, were recorded by order of the Veterinary Director-General, in cooperation with the Parks Branch, and Inspector Christian, of the Meat and Canned Foods Division. Anatomical information gathered included weight, tooth and dental pad types, hard palate color, rib number and measurements, and information about the trachea, heart, spleen, liver, gall bladder and kidneys. Pathological condition information included teratoma, lipoma, and arterio-sclerosis. Parasites found included Hypoderma larvae, Setaria labiato-papillosa, Fasciola magna, Haemonchus ostertagi, Dictyocaulus filaria, Moniezia planissima, Esophagostomum spp., possibly an Echinococcus cyst, and Sarcocystis cysts. There were no lice or other parasites of the skin found.
Anatomy, pathological conditions, and parasite classifications were obtained from slaughtered buffalo (bison) in February 1923 and published in the (British) Veterinary Journal (79: 331-336). A second visit was made in December 1923 when about 1,000 animals were slaughtered to keep down the rapid increase of the herd. Information on the hides, coats, hair, eyes, and tails were recorded. Buffalo usually lie on the sternum, with the legs folded on each side of the body so that when startled the animal rises with remarkable quickness and seems to do so evenly on all four legs. Testicles, scrotum, and penis attachment were recorded. Additional information (weights and measurements) of the liver, intestines, spleen, tongues, and hearts was not found to deviate from the previous data collected. Pathological conditions including a spavin, thoroughpins, and tuberculosis was observed. Fewer parasites were found when compared with data collected in February 1923. Parasites observed included Fascioloides magna, Setaria spp., Hypoderma spp., and Cooperia spp. nematodes.
Nematode worms described in this paper were collected from two species of mammals, the North American buffalo (Bison bison L.) and the North American beaver (Castor canadensis), both of which are of considerable economic importance. The nematodes from bison described include Dictyocaulus hadweni & Ostertagia bisonis. The nematodes from beaver described include Travassosius americanus & Castorstrongylus castoris.
A study in collaboration with the Animal Diseases Research Institute, Canada Department of Agriculture was undertaken in late in 1961. A total of 1,878 bison in Wood Buffalo National Park were tested with tuberculin. A positive reaction was secured in 224 cases, or 11.9% of the animals tested. A total of 491 young animals was also vaccinated against Brucellosis. Altogether, 390 animals, including 224 reactors, were slaughtered and examined thoroughly. All lesions and abnormalities were recorded. The tuberculin test and meat inspection were conducted by officers of the Department of Agriculture. Three hundred and seventy-eight samples of sera collected during the slaughter were tested for Brucellosis and other conditions. A reaction indicating Brucellosis was secured in 161 or 42.32% of the cases. Lungworm infestation was not prevalent in the animals examined. Infected animals were mostly older animals. The filaria worm Setaria cervi was quite common.
Nematodes collected from a white-tailed deer in New York State were identified as Ostertagia circumcincta, O. odocoilei, O. mossi, Chabertia ovina, & Cooperia sp. Skrjabinema ovis was collected from a goat in Massachusetts. Macdonaldius sp. was recovered from sheep in New Mexico. Haemonchus similis & Cooperia pectinata were collected from cattle in Florida. New hosts for the tapeworm, Moniezia benedeni, were collected in Montana from the mountain sheep, Ovis canadensis, and the American Bison, Bison bison.
The morphology, comparisons, and differentiation of Dictyocaulus filaria, D. viviparus, & D. hadweni are discussed. The length of spicules of Dictyocaulus viviparus collected from cattle, bison, moose, elk, reindeer, black-tailed deer, white- tailed deer, mule deer, and red deer is reported.
There are in the literature a number of scattered records of the occurrence of various kinds of helminth parasites in North American semi-domesticated and wild ruminants; there are available also in the U.S. National Museum Helminthological Collection parasites which have not as yet been reported from these hosts. In view of the increased interest manifested in the last few years in the conservation of what is commonly referred to as "wild life," this paper brings together the scattered reports and records on the subject mentioned. The ruminants, semi-domesticated and wild, included are moose, pronghorn antelope, bison, elk, black-tailed deer, mule deer, white-tailed deer, mountain goat, musk ox, mountain sheep, caribou, and reindeer.
Selected surplus bison, Bison bison athabascae (Rhodes), are slaughtered each year at the Wichita Mountain Wildlife Refuge near Cache, Oklahoma. The skulls of three bison were collected and split longitudinally and the nasal sinuses searched for parasites. The skull of a 6-year-old cow was examined and no parasites were found. A 12-year-old bull was examined and mites were found throughout the nasal sinuses. When the skull of a 5- year-old cow was examined, a light infestation of mites was found.
The transmission of Sarcocystis spp. from naturally infected moose, bison, and pronghorn was attemped in laboratory-raised coyotes and dogs. Infected musculature from a moose was fed to a dog and a coyote, and 12 days later, both animals shed sporocysts. Sporocysts were 14 to 17 x 8.5 to 10.5 um (ave. 14.5 x 8.8). A coyote was fed muscle from a bison, and 11 days later, it shed sporocysts. The sporocysts measured 14 to 16 x 9 to 11 um. Infected tissues from a pronghorn were fed to a dog; the dog did not shed sporocysts. Two morphologically distince sarcocysts (thick shelled and thin walled) were found in musculature of a moose. The name, Sarcocystis alceslatrans, sp n, is proposed for the thin-walled sarcocysts in the moose. Sarcocystis infections are common in many species of wild and domestic ruminants. Little information is available about the species of Sarcocystis in moose, bison, and pronghorn. The purpose of the present report is to describe the structure and life cycle of Sarcocystis spp from moose (Alces alces), bison (Bison bison), and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana).
Tissues (1 kg) from sheep, goats, cattle, moose, bison, or elk naturally infected with Sarcocystis species were fed to one to four Sarcocystis-free coyotes and the number of sporocysts in feces and intestines were counted. All 12 coyotes fed naturally infected tissues shed Sarcocystis in feces, with a prepatent period of 9 to 15 days. The four coyotes fed infected beef had 15, 25, 113, and 201 million sporocysts in their feces and intestines. The coyotes fed elk, moose, or bison had 2.5, 15, and 2.5 million sporocysts in their intestines, respectively. Sporocysts in feces of coyotes fed musculature of cattle, sheep, goats, and elk were structurally similar to those described previously from the feces of dogs. This is evidently the first report of the completion of life cycle of Sarcocystis species in moose and bison. Cross-transmission experiments indicated that one species of goat Sarcocystis completes its life cycle in both dog and coyote and that the ovine Sarcocystis is not transmissible to goats.
A 6-day-old female (Bison bison) was inoculated with 10 million sporocysts of the B1 isolate of Sarcocystis cruzi originally obtained by feeding heart of a naturally infected cow (Bos taurus) to a laboratory-raised coyote. The bison became febrile, lethargic, and anorectic at about 25 days after inoculation of the sporocysts, and was euthanatized 3 days later. There were widespread hemorrhages, hepatitis, myocarditis, nephritis, and enteritis; intravascular meronts were found in the adrenal cortex and lamina propria of the small intestine. Another 7-day-old male bison was inoculated with 100,000 sporocysts of the same B1 isolate of S. cruzi. Except for mild fever and transient diarrhea, the bison remained clinically normal. Sarcocysts were found at necropsy on day 76 after inoculation. It was concluded that S. cruzi of cattle is transmissible to bison.
The distribution of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in the tissue of an experimentally inoculated bison, Bison bison, is reported. A 1-day-old bison was removed from his dam at the National Bison Range (Moiese, MT) and was fed 104 infective oocysts of the GT-1 strain of T. gondii at 55 days of age. The bison was sacrificed 28 days post-inoculation and necropsied. Portions of tissues were either homogenized and inoculated subcutaneously into mice, or chopped and fed to naive cats. One cat fed bison liver shed T. gondii oocysts, which were infectious to mice. None of the mice inoculated with bison tissues became infected with T. gondii.
Serum samples from 2,539 cattle, 649 sheep, 123 goats, 413 pigs, 93 bison, and 56 elk from Montana were examined for antibody to Toxoplasma gondii in the Sabin-Feldman dye test or the modified agglutination test (MAT). Cattle, bison and elk serum samples were treated with 0.2 M-mercaptoethanol before examination in MAT. In the dye test, 13.2% of sheep, 5.0% of pigs, and 22.7% of goats had antibody at a dilution of ò1:16. In the MAT, 3.2% of cattle, 3.1% of bison, and none of the elk were positive at a dilution of ò1:128.
Examination of the helminth parasite fauna of a number of wild ruminants indicates a high degree of cross-transmissibility to domesticated hosts. The extent of transmission in nature is moderated by a number of factors. Although few helminth parasites of ruminants are highly host-specific, the majority of those recorded from wild species have domesticated ruminants as their prime hosts. The effect of geographical location on the specific composition of infections is considered to be important in the general epidemiology of ruminant helminthiasis. Imperfect original description of some species and presumptive identification of others complicate the assessment of exchangeability of helminth populations between domesticated and wild animals. The possible emergence of strains and subspecies of differing infectivity hinders the acceptance of equal transmissibility of certain parasites to both groups of hosts. The majority of helminth infections of wild species to which domesticated stock are exposed are of low pathogenicity and the wild animal appears more likely to suffer in any encounter in communal grazing. Of the helminth zoonoses attributable to ruminants, the important sources are usually in domesticated species; hydatidosis is the notable exception and some aspects of its sylvatic cycle are discussed. It is concluded that, except in a few special cases, the background of helminthiasis in wild ruminants is not, at present, an important contributory factor in the epidemiology of helminthiasis in domestic stock.
Bison bison (bison), Cervus canadensis (elk), Alces alces (moose), and Bos taurus (cattle) musculature containing Sarcocystis spp. cysts was fed to laboratory raised Canis latrans (coyotes). Sporocysts collected from the feces of coyotes fed musculature of each of the ruminant species were fed to four groups of three laboratory-raised domestic calves, respectively, to determine if Sarcocystis spp. was transmissible from wild to domestic ruminants and if so, to compare clinical signs of infection and morphologic features of cysts with those resulting from infection with Sarcocystis bovicanis. All calves fed sporocysts of Sarcocystis from coyotes that ate bison or cattle muscle had similar clinical signs and harbored morphologically similar parasites, suggesting that both bison and cattle are intermediate hosts for S. bovicanis and that this species is transmissible between the two ruminant species. All calves fed sporocysts from coyotes that ate elk muscle or moose muscle remained asymptomatic but one calf in each group had intramuscular cysts. The finding of relatively large numbers of intramuscular cysts in one calf fed sporocysts of elk origin and smaller numbers in one calf fed sporocysts of moose origin could represent either spurious natural infectons or indicate low infectivity of Sarcocystis spp. from elk and moose to cattle.
A report of an outbreak of redwater (caused by Babesia major) in American bison occurring in a herd in Britain is discussed. Redwater had not been previously reported in Britain.
Parasitism in an Independence, KS bison herd is reported. Parasites found included Haemonchus contortus, Dictyocaulus viviparus and Oesophagostomum radiatum.
The historical summary, taxonomy, bison range, reproductive characteristics, mortality factors, and management proposals of the range and bison of Wood Buffalo National Park are discussed. Both external and internal parasites found in these bison are presented and include: Damalinia (Bovicola) sedecimdecembrii, Setaria labiato-papillosa and Dictyocaulus spp. Also discussed is the abscence of several parasites previously reported in the bison.
Standard horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.), rearing medium was compared with manure of cattle, bison, sheep, horse, and swine for production of viable horn flies. Horn flies developed to adults on all media except swine manure. Field observations showed adult horn flies on horses, sheep and bison as well as cattle. No natural horn fly development was found in horse manure.
Parasites of elk and wild ruminants are discussed. Haemonchus contortus has been found in at least 10 species of wild ruminants; Ostertagia bullosa was found in sheep and pronghorn antelope; Cooperia bisonis was found in bison and domesticated cattle; Fasciola hepatica occasionally was found in wild ruminants; F. magna was found in American deer and cattle; and Thysanosoma actinioides has been found in American wild ruminants and sheep.
Intestinal paramphistomiosis was diagnosed in a bull and cow with severe diarrhea and weight loss, and subsequent investigation suggested that the infection was transmitted from American bison (Bison bison). The rumen fluke, Paramphistomum microbothrioides, was recovered from the rumen of 3 bison on the farm of origin. Single operculate eggs of P. microbothrioides measuring 130 x 69 um were recovered from the feces of the bull, from 9 of 10 bison, and from 3 of 9 other beef cattle. Snails of the genera Physa and Helisoma were collected at the farm of origin. Ostertagiosis and paratuberculosis were considered in the differential diagnosis but were ruled out on the basis of fecal, plasma, and mucosal tests. In view of the lack of approved drugs for treatment of paramphistomes in the United States, treatment was attempted with an 8 times normal dose of thiabendazole (528 mg/kg). Advice was given on grazing management strategies designed to reduce exposure of susceptible cattle to metacercariae, and the owner was advised to drain a large snail habitat.
An outbreak of tick paralysis is reported in Hereford cattle from Perma, MT. Cattle were found to be heavily infested with Dermacentor andersoni. Symptomatology, infestations, and treatment are discussed.
Diseases and causative organisms of wildlife in Wyoming is provided in a chapter limited to protozoa. Classification and index of the Subkingdom Protozoa is given and discussed.
Diseases and causative organisms of wildlife in Wyoming is provided in a chapter limited to platyhelminthes. Classification and index of the Phylum Platyhelminthes is given and discussed.
Bloodstream trypomastigotes were recovered from a bison experimentally exposed to cryogenically preserved culture forms of Trypanosoma theileri of bovine origin. The bison trypomastigotes were compared statistically with bloodstream Trypanosoma theileri trypomastigotes from cattle and bloodstream Trypanosoma cervi trypomastigotes from North American deer. The trypanosomes from bison retained the morphological features of T. theileri suggesting that cattle and bison share this parasite.
Further studies on moose revealed trypanosomes in two captive moose (Alces alces shirasi) and in 4 of 7 free-ranging moose in Wyoming by blood culture. Two free-ranging moose from Utah were negative. One of two additional captive moose calves was positive for trypanosomes. Trypanosomes also were detected in blood cultures of 8 of 39 American bison (Bison bison) being brought into Wyoming from Nebraska. Nineteen additional bison were negative for trypanosomes by blood cultures. Identification of species was not possible due to the failure to obtain bloodstream trypomastigotes from this host. Trypanosomes were recovered from 8 of 57 pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana). This is the first report of Trypanosoma sp. from bison and from pronghorn; the trypanosome from moose was identified as Trypanosoma cervi from bloodstream trypomastigotes. In 1978, natural transplacental transmission of trypanosomes was found to occur in 1 of 15 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) fetuses, examined near term by blood culture. No trypanosomes were found in 18 mule deer fetuses examined in 1979. Of 100 free-ranging elk from western Wyoming examined by blood culture in 1979, 71 were infected. These data are compared with data from 1973-74.
The new species, from the cecum of 2 mountain goats killed on Wardle Mountain, Kootenay National Park, British Columbia, Canada, is characterized by males with spicules 3.17 to 4.27 mm long which are acutely pointed, an ejaculatory duct which is longer than the vas deferens, and a spinous spicular sheath which has an expansion near its center. Females have a spinous vulva, not everted, a large expansion of the posterior vagina just before the uterine sphincter, and a nearly straight posterior portion. This constitutes the 5th species of Trichuris recovered from ruminants in North America, and a key is presented to facilitate differentiation of the 5 species.
Tick paralysis had not been previously reported in the American bison. Bison from two herds located in Ronan, MT and Arlee, MT, had infestations of Dermacentor andersoni and common symptoms of tick paralysis. Symptoms and treatment is discussed.
Scabies is a widespread condition caused by Psoroptes spp. mites. It has been reported in desert bighorn sheep, Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep, elk, white-tailed deer, mule deer, and may have been identified on bison.
Ostertagia bisonis Chapin, 1925, is an abomasal worm of the American buffalo, Bison bison, and other ruminants including cattle in which it can cause clinical nematodiasis. This report describes characteristics of O. bisonis, especially details of the synlophe and esophagus, that are necessary for constructing a key to the species of medium stomach worms (Ostertagiinae) parasitic in domestic ruminants in North America. The synlophe of O. bisonis is most similar to the single ridge tapering lateral synlophe of Ostertagia osteragi. Ducts of the subventral glands of the esophagus empty anterior to the cervical papillae and the esophageal-intestinal valve is more than twice as long as wide. We follow earlier workers in considering Ostertagia orloffi Sankin, 1930, a synonym of O. bisonis. Ostertagia bisonis may have more generalized characters than any other species with a tapering lateral synlophe that are parasites of domestic ruminants in North America, but polarization of some characters cannot be considered reliable until additional outgroups are studied.
Bison herd reductions were carried out at the National Bison Range (Moiese, MT) and Yellowstone National Park Bison Ranch (WY). Animals were sacrificed and the following parasites recovered and identified: Hypoderma sp., Fasciola hepatica, Moniezia benedeni, Dictyocaulus viviparus, and Trichuris ovis.
Muscle samples from 557 wild ungulates in Alberta, comprising seven species, were examined grossly and/or histologically for cysts of Sarcocystis. Sarcocystis was found in 100, 96, 94, 75, 75, 73, and 49% of the wapiti (Cervus canadensis), moose (Alces alces), bison (Bison bison), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus), and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus), respectively.
Recent advances in Parasitology have encouraged research in this field at the Animal Hospital Laboratory of the New York Zoological Park, and a systematic study of the nematode parasites collected from mammals during the year has revealed much interesting data concerning parasites of animals in captivity. Three nematodes, new to our collection, have been described, and several others held for further study. Specimans new to our collection are Citellina marmotae Manter, 1930, from the Woodchuck (Marmota monax); Passalurus nonanulata Skinker, 1931; and Dermatoys veligera (Rudolphi, 1819), both from a cotton tail rabbit (Sylvilagus sylvaticus) wild in the park. Among those held for further study are Trichuris sp.; Trichostrongylus sp.; Physaloptera sp. and a very interesting species of Rictularia from the small intestine of a Kinkajou (Potos flavus). A comparative study of the species of Rictularia is in progress, and only a few important measurements and characters will be given in this report.
Anaplasmosis is caused by the rickettsia Anaplasma marginale and is biologically transmitted by ixodid ticks and mechanically transmitted by tabanids. Wild ruminants such as mule deer, white-tailed deer, pronghorn antelope, bighorn sheep, elk, and bison have been reported to have the organism.
Parasites that may affect buffalo are discussed. Those ecto-parasites listed included: Cochlopmyia macellaria, Hypoderma, Damalinia sedecimdecembrii, Dermacentor andersoni, Boophilus annulatus, Spleneognathus australis, Dictyocaulus viviparus, and D. filaria. Sporozoa, and the bacteria Actinobacillus lignieresii are discussed. Internal parasites listed include Setaria labillosa, Ostertagia bisonis, Cooperia bisonis, Haemonchus contortus, Oesophagostomum radiatum, Trichuris ovis, Moniezia benedeni, two flagellates (Cercomonas & Copromonas), two amoebae (Sappinia diploidea & Vahlkampfia), Monas, Fasciola magna, F. hepatica, Anaplasma, and Babesia bigemina.
The bison of Yellowstone National Park are addressed. Mortality factors reviewed include internal and external parasites, diseases (brucellosis), predation, and miscellaneous other causes such as winterkill.
Coprozoic protozoa from elk, bison, bear, moose, coyote, marmot, cattle, horse, sheep and man were kept in feces at 4 degrees C. for 2-6 months. During that time in most of the samples there developed the flagellates Cercomonas sp., Copromonas ruminantium and Monas communis; the amoebae Vahlkampfia sp. and Sappinia diploidea, and ciliates of the Nyclotherus type, and an unidentified smaller species. There was a correlation between numbers of protozoa and bacteria. The same species of protozoa in soil or in soil mixed with boiled feces failed to live. Coprozoic protozoa may require certain essential metabolites from bacteria as do true parasites. The wide variation in appearance of cysts made it practically impossible to identify the protozoa with certainty in that stage. Reliance had to be on motile forms which readily developed in the cold cultures.
Blood was collected at slaughter from 132 adult American bison (Bison bison) raised in an anaplasmosis endemic area where the vector Dermacentor andersoni (=venustus) is indigenous. Hematologic studies revealed no indications of clinical anaplasmosis. Card agglutination and complement-fixation tests on all bison serums were negative. Eleven anaplasmosis- susceptible calves each inoculated with 204 ml of blood pooled from 12 bison did not develop anaplasmosis. Results of this study indicate American bison have resistance to natural A. marginale infection.
Heart, esophagus, diaphragm and skeletal muscle tissue obtained from various herbivores on the National Bison Range were examined grossly for Sarcocystis. Sarcocystis was found in 81, 50, 50, and 13% of the mule deer, (Odocoileus hemionus), white- tailed deer (O. virginianus), elk (Cervus elaphus), and bison (Bison bison), respectively.
A key to the imperfectly known species of Haemonchus is given. The key begins with an 1803 Strongylus contortus, then to an 1861 Strongylus filicollis, then to an 1893 Strongylus placei, and finally ends with an 1898 Haemonchus contortus.
Arthropod and helminth parasites are reported from the American bison. Parasites accounted for include Dermacentor nigrolineatus, Hypoderma lineatum, Moniezia benedeni, Haemonchus contortus, Dictyocaulus hadweni, and Oesophagostomum.
Three species of coccidia, found in American bison sampled in Wyoming, are identified. The described coccidial species, common to cattle, have not been reported previously from American bison, (Bison bison). Identification of the parasites was determined by oocyst structural measurements and by oocyst sporulation times.
Most of the studies of diseases of wildlife have been carried on primarily in relation to human welfare and the transmissibility of these diseases to domestic wildlife rather than for the benefit of wildlife itself. In this article many diseases and their effects on the wildlife are considered. Brucellosis, lung worm, stomach worm and botulism are some of the diseases mentioned.
A review is made of all previous records of Trematoda, Cestoda and Nematoda found in Canadian horses, cattle, sheep, swine, deer, buffalo, dogs and cats, foxes, miscellaneous fur- bearers, poultry and game birds. These records are taken from papers published in various forms which claim identification of the parasites found, and are here published as check lists following an introduction and a semihistorical review of Canadian helminthology.
The life history of Fascioloides magna in Canada has been elucidated, the intermediate hosts being two fresh-water gastropods, Fossaria parva (Lea) and Stagnicola palustris nuttalliana (Lea). The morphology and bionomics of the egg and larval stages are described, particular attention being given to the nonparasitic stages. The ecology of the gastropod hosts in Canada is briefly described. A histopathological study of the lesion in definitive hosts reveals that this parasite in large Bovidae causes a severe tissue reaction. The lesion in these animals is generally in the form of a closed fibrous cyst from which eggs are unable to pass, and thus the life cycle cannot be completed. In Cervidae, the cavity in the liver is connected directly with the bile duct system, and there is a free egress of ova. From these facts it is inferred that this parasitic disease can only occur in the presence of Cervidae. Laboratory animals have been artificially infested with maritae, thus extending the host records of the trematode. A brief historical review, a summary of the present knowledge of distribution and definitive hosts affected, and a description of the control measures, are included.
Comparative studies have been made on the tissue reactions in fascioloidiasis magna in Bos taurus, Bison bison, B. taurus X B. bison, Cervus canadensis, Odocoileus virginianus and Ovis aries. Data have been obtained that support the hypothesis that the Cervidae are normal hosts in the trematode's life-cycle, that the large Bovidae do not act in this capacity and that Ovis aries may act as a definitive host but is severely injured by even light infestations. The cellular bases of the defence reactions in the above ruminants are recorded.
The involvement of veterinarians in the health management of North American bison will continue to increase, particularly in regard to the development of the bison ranching industry. More intensive management of bison will lead to greater recognition of diseases, and will raise concerns about the transmission of diseases between bison and other livestock species. This review of the infectious and noninfectious diseases of free-ranging and captive bison populations indicates that bison are susceptible to a wide range of indigenous and foreign diseases that occur in cattle and other livestock species. Most of the available information is based on necropsy results or serological surveys, and there is much less information on clinical, diagnostic and preventive medicine, or on the evaluation of conventional diagnostic tests, therapeutic regimens, or vaccines in bison.
Type II ostertagiosis was found at necropsy in 9 American bison (Bison bison) from 3 farms in New York. Clinical signs included severe diarrhea, emaciation, unthrifty coats, anemia, and weakness. In severely affected animals, the macroscopic abomasal changes consisted of irregular thickening and edema of the mucosa, resulting in a pebbly or morocco-leather appearance. Microscopically, many gastric pits and glands were dilated, lined by hyperplastic epithelium, and contained nematode sections or debris. Parasites recovered included Ostertagia ostertagi, Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostrongylus lerouxi, Cooperia oncophora, Haemonchus contortus, Nematodirus helvetianus, Trichurid discolor, Setaria labiatopapillosa, Dictyocaulus viviparus, Hypoderma lineatum, and Sarcocystis sp. Nodules in the small and large intestine were attributed to Oesophagostomum sp. Trichostrongylus lerouxi, Trichuris discolor, and Nematodirus helvetianus are reported from bison for the first time.
This note summarizes unpublished records of Capillaria bovis sensu lato in Wyoming, Montana, and Oregon and reports its occurrence in additional host species during the period from 1962 to 1976. Records listed were compiled from fecal examinations in which eggs indistinguishable from C. bovis were found in stools of bighorn sheep, cattle, and bison. Records in domestic sheep and elk were based upon recovery of C. bovis adults at necropsy as well as positive identification in fecal specimens.
Field studies are reported of the anthelmintic activity of five drugs (Phenothiazine, chlortetracycline, stilbestrol, phenothiazine, ronnel and Dowco 109) in 13 different combinations which were administered primarily as feed additives to bison and Hereford cattle. Worm egg counts of heifers receiving 75 mg of chlortetracycline plus 2 g of phenothiazine per day, regardless of whether preceeded by a therapeutic dose of 48 g of phenothiazine, were significantly lower than their control. Reduced EPG levels persisted during the 10.5 month treatment period. No measurable anthelmintic activity was attributed to chlortetracycline, phenothiazine, diethylstilbestrol, or Dowco 109 when these compounds were administered separately. A single 100-mg/kg dose of ronnel in either bolus or feed formulation significantly reduced EPG in feedlot cattle for five and seven months, respectively. In range bison, appreciably reduced EPG persisted for 36 days following ronnel treatment, but returned to pre-treatment levels by 60 days post-treatment.
Anaplasma marginale was experimentally transmitted from cattle to bison and back to cattle. Of the 2 splenectomized and 1 intact American bison calves (Bison bison) inoculated with a North Texas A.marginale stabilate, 1 splenectomized and 1 intact bison exhibited clinical signs of anaplasmosis. Active parasitemias in these bison were observed along with positive reactions in the rapid card agglutination and complement fixation tests. Blood from the infected bison produced disease in splenectomized bison calves. Screening tests for anti-Anaplasma antibodies in 178 blood samples collected from adult bison from the National Bison Range, Montana, revealed 1 rapid card agglutination test-positive sample, and 110 negative, 40 suspect, and 28 positive (15.7%) complement fixation test samples.
Blood collected 314 and 496 days after experimentally infecting splenectomized and spleen-intact American bison (Bison bison) with Anaplasma marginale was infective for splenectomized bovine steers. The pathogenesis was identical to that seen in bovine studies using bovine blood inoculations. A splenectomized bison remained normal clinically, hematologically and serologically for 10 mo after repeated inoculation of ovine blood infected with A. ovis.
Babesia bigemina was experimentally transmitted from cattle to bison and back to cattle. One spleen-intact and two splenectomized American bison (Bison bison) inoculated with a B. bigemina stabilate exhibited clincal and hematological signs of babesiosis within 10 days of exposure. Blood from the infected bison produced disease in a splenectomized bovine steer.
Thanks are given to Elizabeth Linton and David Worley for help in finding reference materials.
Stuart E. Knapp, Ph.D and Professor of Parasitology, Veterinary Molecular Biology, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717
Sara E. Marley, Ph.D of Parasitology and Entomology, NIH Post- doctoral Research Fellow, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia 30341
Shawna M. Button, Student Research Assistant, Veterinary Molecular Biology, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717
Matthew C. Rognlie, M.S. of Biochemistry, Research Specialist, Veterinary Molecular Biology, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717
SUBJECT REFERENCE PAPER # Bacteria: Actinobacillus lignieresii 39 Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) 11,50 Brucella abortus (Bang's) 10,25,50 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) 10,25,50 (mycobacterium) Viruses: Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) 50 Foot & Mouth 50 Bluetongue 50 Parainfluenza-3 50 Bison anatomy, pathological conditions 7,50 Bison biology and management 25,40 Diseases/Conditions: Actinobacillosis 39 Anaplasmosis 39,42,50 Anemia 39 Anthrax 11 Arthritis 25 Brucellosis 10,25,40,50 Coccidiosis 30 Conjuntivitis 40 Ostertagiasis 51 Redwater 23 Sarcocystosis 18 Tick paralysis 29,34 Toxoplasmosis 20 Chemotherapeutic studies 53