Montana State University

Contact Information

Richard A. Block, Ph.D.
Professor

Department of Psychology
Montana State University
P.O. Box 173440
Bozeman, MT 59717-3440

Tel: (406) 994-5173
Fax: (406) 994-3804
Location: 305 Traphagen Hall

Email: block@montana.edu

All Publications and Presentations

This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons downloading the PDF files linked hereto are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. These works may not be reposted, republished, duplicated, or distributed to any entity, individuals or individual without the explicit permission of the copyright holder. You may request reprints of other articles, not yet available as PDFs, in the usual manner.

Publications:

Block, R. A., & Gruber, R. P. (in press). Time perception, attention, and memory: A selective review. Acta Psychologica.

Block, R. A., & Hancock, P. A. (in press). Time perception. In R. Hoffman (Ed.), Cambridge Handbook of Applied Perception Research. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Block, R. A., & Hancock, P. A. (2013). Time perception. Annotated bibliography in Oxford Online Bibliographies. [Link to follow, available NOW online]

Gruber, R. P., & Block, R. A. (2013). The flow of time as a perceptual illusion. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 34, 91-100. [PDF]

Block, R. A., & Crawford, K. C. (2013). Gender stereotypes of leadership behaviors: Social metacognitive evidence. Psychology and Social Behavior Research, 1, 9-17. [ PDF]

Hancock. P. A., & Block, R. A. (2012). The psychology of time: A view backward and forward. American Journal of Psychology, 125, 267-274. [ PDF]

Block, R. A., Hancock, P. A., & Zakay, D. (2010). How cognitive load affects duration judgments: A meta-analytic review. Acta Psychologica, 134, 330-343. doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2010.03.006 [PDF]

Block, R. A. (2009). Intent to remember briefly presented human faces and other pictorial stimuli enhances recognition memory. Memory & Cognition, 37, 667-678. doi:10.3758/MC.37.5.667 [PDF]

Block, R. A., & Zakay, D. (2008). Timing and remembering the past, the present, and the future. In S. Grondin (Ed.), Psychology of time (pp. 367-394). Bingley, England: Emerald. [PDF]

Block, R. A., & Zakay, D. (2006). Prospective remembering involves time estimation and memory processes. In J. Glicksohn & M. S. Myslobodsky (Eds.), Timing the future: The case for a time-based prospective memory (pp. 25-49). River Edge, NJ: World Scientific. [PDF]

Polewan, R. J., Vigorito, C. M., Nason, C. D., Block, R. A., & Moore, J. W. (2006). A Cartesian reflex assessment of face processing. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 5, 3-23. doi:10.1177/1534582306289130 [PDF]

Gruber, R. P., & Block, R. A. (2005). Effects of caffeine on prospective duration judgments of various intervals depend on task difficulty. Human Psychopharmacology, 20, 275-285. doi:10.1002/hup.687 [PDF]

Pierce, C. A., Block, R. A., & Aguinis, H. (2004). Cautionary note on reporting eta-squared values from multifactor ANOVA designs. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64, 916-924. doi:10.1177/0013164404264848 [PDF]

Zakay, D., & Block, R. A. (2004). Prospective and retrospective duration judgments: An executive-control process. Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, 64, 319-328. [PDF]

Gruber, R. P., Wagner, L. F., & Block, R. A. (2004). Relationships between subjective time and information processed (reduction of uncertainty). In P. Harris & M. Crawford (Eds.), Time and uncertainty: The study of time XI (pp. 188-203). Leiden , Netherlands : Brill. [PDF]

Block, R. A. (2003). Psychological timing without a timer: The roles of attention and memory. In H. Helfrich (Ed.), Time and mind II: Information-processing perspectives (pp. 41-59). Seattle , WA : Hogrefe & Huber. [PDF]

Gruber, R. P., & Block, R. A. (2003). Effects of caffeine on prospective and retrospective duration judgments. Human Psychopharmacology, 18, 351-359. doi:10.1002/hup.501 [PDF]

Block, R. A., & Zakay, D. (2001). Retrospective and prospective timing: Memory, attention, and consciousness. In C. Hoerl & T. McCormack (Eds.), Time and memory: Issues in philosophy and psychology (pp. 59-76). Oxford , England : Oxford University Press. [PDF]

Block, R. A., & Zakay, D. (2001). Psychological time at the millennium: Some past, present, future, and interdisciplinary issues. In M. P. Soulsby & J. T. Fraser (Eds.), Time: Perspectives at the millennium (The study of time X, pp. 157-173). Westport , CT : Bergin & Garvey. [PDF]

Block, R. A., Hancock, P. A., & Zakay, D. (2000). Sex differences in duration judgments: A meta-analytic review. Memory & Cognition, 28, 1333-1346. [PDF]

Block, R. A., & Zakay, D. (2000). Psychological time: Memory, attention, and consciousness. In R. Buccheri, V. di Gesù, & M. Saniga (Eds.), Studies on the structure of time: From physics to psycho(patho)logy. Dordrecht , Netherlands : Kluwer Academic.

Gruber, R. P., Wagner, L. F., & Block, R. A. (2000). Subjective time vs. proper (clock) time. In R. Buccheri, V. di Gesù, & M. Saniga (Eds.), Studies on the Structure of Time: From Physics to Psycho(patho)logy. Dordrecht , Netherlands : Kluwer Academic.

Hill, O. W., Block, R. A., & Buggie, S. E. (2000). Culture and beliefs about time: Comparisons among Black Americans, Black Africans, and White Americans. Journal of Psychology, 134, 443-461. [PDF]

Zakay, D., & Block, R. A. (1999). The negative asynchrony phenomenon: A prospective timing perspective. In G. Aschersleben, T. Bachmann, & J. Müsseler (Eds.), Cognitive contributions to the perception of spatial and temporal events (pp. 251-257). Amsterdam : Elsevier.

Block, R. A., Zakay, D., & Hancock, P. A. (1999). Developmental changes in human duration judgments: A meta-analytic review. Developmental Review, 19, 183-211. doi:10.1006/drev.1998.0475 [PDF]

Zakay, D., Block, R. A., & Tsal, Y. (1999). Prospective duration estimation and performance. In D. Gopher & A. Koriat (Eds.), Attention and Performance XVII: Cognitive regulation of performance: Interaction of theory and application (pp. 557-580). Cambridge , MA : MIT Press.

Block, R. A., Zakay, D., & Hancock, P. A. (1998). Human aging and duration judgments: A meta-analytic review. Psychology and Aging, 13, 584-596. doi:10.1037/0882-7974.13.4.584 [PDF]

Gasde, I. , & Block, R. A. (1998). Cult experience: Psychological abuse, distress, personality characteristics, and changes in personal relationships reported by former members of Church Universal and Triumphant. Cultic Studies Journal, 15, 192-221.

Zakay, D., & Block, R. A. (1998). New perspective on prospective time estimation. In V. De Keyser, G. d'Ydewalle, & A. Vandierendonck, A. (Eds.), Time and the dynamic control of behavior (pp. 129-141). Seattle , WA : Hogrefe & Huber.

Block, R. A. (1998). Psychological time and the processing of spatial information. In M. J. Egenhofer & R. G. Golledge (Eds.), Spatial and temporal reasoning in geographic information systems (pp. 119-130). New York : Oxford University Press. [PDF]

Block, R. A. (1998). [Review of the book Searching for memory: The brain, the mind, and the past]. Time's News, No. 28, p. 21.

Block, R. A. (1998). [Review of the book A geography of time]. Time's News, No. 28, pp. 18-19.

Block, R. A., & Zakay, D. (1997). Prospective and retrospective duration judgments: A meta-analytic review. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 4, 184-197. [PDF]

Zakay, D., & Block, R. A. (1997). Temporal cognition. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 6, 12-16. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.ep11512604 [PDF]

Binkofski, F., & Block, R. A. (1996). Accelerated time experience after left frontal cortex lesion. Neurocase, 2, 485-493. [PDF]

Block, R. A., & Zakay, D. (1996). Models of psychological time revisited. In H. Helfrich (Ed.), Time and mind (pp. 171-195). Kirkland , WA : Hogrefe & Huber. [PDF]

Zakay, D., & Block, R. A. (1996). The role of attention in time estimation processes. In M. A. Pastor (Ed.), Time, internal clocks, and movement (pp. 143-164). Amsterdam : Elsevier.

Block, R. A., Buggie, S. E., & Matsui, F. (1996). Beliefs about time: Cross-cultural comparisons. Journal of Psychology, 130, 5-22. [PDF]

Block, R. A. (1996). Psychological time and memory systems of the brain. In J. T. Fraser & M. P. Soulsby (Eds.), Dimensions of time and life: The study of time VIII (pp. 61-76). Madison , CT : International Universities Press. [PDF]

Block, R. A., & Kasser, T. (1995, December). [Review of the book Psychology of future orientation]. Time's News, No. 26, pp. 19-20.

Zakay, D., & Block, R. A. (1995). An attentional-gate model of prospective time estimation. In M. Richelle, V. De Keyser, G. d'Ydewalle, & A. Vandierendonck (Eds.), Time and the dynamic control of behavior (pp. 167-178). Liège , Belgium : Universite de Liege. [PDF]

Block, R. A. (1995). Time, the wisest of all counselors? [Review of the book Time pressure and stress in human judgment and decision making]. Contemporary Psychology, 40, 777-779. doi:10.1037/003887

Block, R. A., & Kasser, T. (1995). Approaches to the future: The essential 12 percent of thoughts [Review of the book Psychology of future orientation]. Contemporary Psychology, 40, 650-651. doi:10.1037/003794

Block, R. A. (1995). Review of Einstein's Dreams [Review of the book Einstein's dreams]. Contemporary Psychology, 40, 600-601. doi:10.1037/003759

Block, R. A. (1994, October). [Review of the book Einstein's dreams]. Time's News, No. 24, p. 14.

Block, R. A. (1994, January). [Review of the book Time, action and cognition: Towards bridging the gap]. Time's News, No. 22, p. 10.

Block, R. A. (1994). Cognition. In S. L. Macey (Ed.), Encyclopedia of time (pp. 134-136). New York : Garland .

Block, R. A. (1994). Hypnosis and psychological time. In S. L. Macey (Ed.), Encyclopedia of time (pp. 286-287). New York : Garland .

Block, R. A. (1994). James, William (as psychologist) (1842-1910). In S. L. Macey (Ed.), Encyclopedia of time (pp. 320-321). New York : Garland .

Block, R. A. (1994). Prospective and retrospective time. In S. L. Macey (Ed.), Encyclopedia of time (pp. 499-500). New York : Garland .

Block, R. A. (1994). Psychoactive drugs. In S. L. Macey (Ed.), Encyclopedia of time (pp. 501-502). New York : Garland .

Block, R. A. (1994). Temperature and psychological time. In S. L. Macey (Ed.), Encyclopedia of time (pp. 594-595). New York : Garland .

Block, R. A. (1994). Time-order errors. In S. L. Macey (Ed.), Encyclopedia of time (pp. 632). New York : Garland .

Block, R. A., & Patterson, R. (1994). Simultaneity, successiveness, and temporal-order judgments. In S. L. Macey (Ed.), Encyclopedia of time (pp. 555-557). New York : Garland .

Block, R. A. (1993). Factor structure of beliefs about time: Comment on Hill and Stuckey (1992). Perceptual and Motor Skills, 76, 1009-1010.

Block, R. A. (1992). Prospective and retrospective duration judgment: The role of information processing and memory. In F. Macar, V. Pouthas, & W. J. Friedman (Eds.), Time, action and cognition: Towards bridging the gap (pp. 141-152). Dordrecht , Netherlands : Kluwer Academic. [PDF]

Block, R. A., & Harper, D. R. (1991). Overconfidence in estimation: Testing the anchoring-and-adjustment hypothesis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 49, 188-207. doi:10.1016/0749-5978(91)90048-X [PDF]

Block, R. A. (1990, October). [Review of the book Guyau and the idea of time]. Time's News, No. 18, pp. 13-14.

Block, R. A. (Ed.). (1990). Cognitive models of psychological time. Hillsdale , NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Block, R. A. (1990). Models of psychological time. In R. A. Block (Ed.), Cognitive models of psychological time (pp. 1-35). Hillsdale , NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [PDF]

Block, R. A. (1989). A contextualistic view of time and mind. In J. T. Fraser (Ed.), Time and mind: Interdisciplinary issues (pp. 61-79). Madison , CT : International Universities Press.

Block, R. A. (1989). Experiencing and remembering time: Affordances, context, and cognition. In I. Levin & D. Zakay (Eds.), Time and human cognition: A life-span perspective (pp. 333-363). Amsterdam : North-Holland. [PDF]

Block, R. A., Arnott, D. P., Quigley, B., & Lynch, W. C. (1989). Unilateral nostril breathing influences lateralized cognitive performance. Brain and Cognition, 9, 181-190. doi:10.1016/0278-2626(89)90028-6 [PDF]

Block, R. A. (1986). Remembered duration: Imagery processes and contextual encoding. Acta Psychologica, 62, 103-122. doi:10.1016/0001-6918(86)90063-6

Block, R. A. (1986). The upper end of cognition [Review of Thinking, Problem Solving, Cognition]. Contemporary Psychology, 31, 193-194. doi:10.1037/024581

Block, R. A. (1985). Contextual coding in memory: Studies of remembered duration. In J. A. Michon & J. L. Jackson (Eds.), Time, mind, and behavior (pp. 169-178). Heidelberg , Germany : Springer Verlag. [PDF]

Block, R. A. (1985). World models for the psychology of time. Teorie & Modelli, 2 (Suppl. 1), 89-111. [PDF]

Block, R. A. (1985). Education and thinking skills reconsidered [Comment]. American Psychologist, 40, 574-575. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.40.5.574 [PDF]

Warner, D. J., & Block, R. A. (1984). Type A behavior and temporal judgment. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 22, 163-166.

Block, R. A., Saggau, J. L., & Nickol, L. H. (1983-84). Temporal Inventory on Meaning and Experience: A structure of time. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 3, 203-225. [PDF]

Block, R. A. (1982). Temporal judgments and contextual change. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 8, 530-544. doi:10.1037/0278-7393.8.6.530 [PDF]

Block, R. A., George, E. J., & Reed, M. A. (1980). A watched pot sometimes boils: A study of duration experience. Acta Psychologica, 46, 81-94. doi:10.1016/0001-6918(80)90001-3 [PDF]

Brown, S. W., & Block, R. A. (1980). Context facilitation and disruption in word identification. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 15, 242-244.

Block, R. A. (1979). Time and consciousness. In G. Underwood & R. Stevens (Eds.), Aspects of consciousness: Vol. 1. Psychological issues (pp. 179-217). London : Academic Press. [PDF]

Block, R. A., & Reed, M. A. (1978). Remembered duration: Evidence for a contextual-change hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 4, 656-665. doi:10.1037/0278-7393.4.6.656 [PDF]

Block, R. A. (1978). Remembered duration: Effects of event and sequence complexity. Memory & Cognition, 6, 320-326.

Block, R. A. (1978). Time in memory: The chase is on! [Review of the book Temporal Codes for Memories: Issues and Problems]. Contemporary Psychology, 23, 11-12. doi:10.1037/016855

Hintzman, D. L., Summers, J. J., & Block, R. A. (1975). What causes the spacing effect? Some effects of repetition, duration, and spacing on memory for pictures. Memory & Cognition, 3, 287-294. doi:10.1037/0278-7393.1.1.31

Hintzman, D. L., Summers, J. J., & Block, R. A. (1975). Spacing judgments as an index of study-phase retrieval. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 1, 31-40. doi:10.1037/0278-7393.1.1.31 [PDF]

Block, R. A. (1974). Memory and the experience of duration in retrospect. Memory & Cognition, 2, 153-160.

Hintzman, D. L., Block, R. A., & Summers, J. J. (1973). Modality tags and memory for repetition: Locus of the spacing effect. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 12, 229-238. doi:10.1016/S0022-5371(73)80013-1

Hintzman, D. L., & Block, R. A. (1973). Memory for the spacing of repetitions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 99, 70-74. doi:10.1037/h0034761 [PDF]

Hintzman, D. L., Block, R. A., & Summers, J. J. (1973). Contextual associations and memory for serial position. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 97, 220-229. doi:10.1037/h0033884 [PDF]

Hintzman, D. L., Block, R. A., & Inskeep, N. R. (1972). Memory for mode of input. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 741-749. doi:10.1016/S0022-5371(72)80008-2

Block, R. A. (1971). Effects of instructions to forget in short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 89, 1-9. doi:10.1037/h0031190 [PDF]

Hintzman, D. L., & Block, R. A. (1971). Repetition and memory: Evidence for a multiple-trace hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 88, 297-306. doi:10.1037/h0030907 [PDF]

Hintzman, D. L., & Block, R. A. (1970). Memory judgments and the effects of spacing. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 9, 561-566. doi:10.1016/S0022-5371(70)80102-5

Block, R. A., & McConnell, J. V. (1967). Classically conditioned discrimination in the planarian, Dugesia dorotocephala. Nature, 215, 1465-1466. doi:10.1038/2151465a0

Presentations:

Block, R. A. (2013, April). What nurses should know: Applications from Bayes and Zimbardo. Paper presented at an internet conferences of nurses, Montana State University (with Billings, Missoula, Great Falls, and Kalispell online).

Buggie, S. E., & Block, R. A. (2013, April). Attributions for mental disturbances among American Indians and others. Paper presented at the meeting of the Rocky Mountain Psychological Association, Denver, CO.

Block, R. A. (2012, October). Time perception, attention, and memory: A view of evidence. Paper presented at the TIMELY conference on Temporal Processing Within and Across Senses, Tübingen, Germany.

Block, R. A., & Manley, K. D. (2011, November). Intent to remember and Von Restorff (isolation) effects reveal attentional processes. Paper presented at the meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Seattle. [Abstract in Abstracts of the Psychonomic Society, 16, 122.]

Block, R. A. (2008, November). Intentional memory: Theories and evidence. Paper presented at the meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Chicago. [Abstract in Abstracts of the Psychonomic Society, 13, 44-45.]

Block, R. A. (2007, June). Cognitive workload affects duration judgments: Meta-analytic evidence. In S. Grondin (Chair), Perspectives on the Ubiquity/Tyranny of Time. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the Canadian Society for Brain, Behaviour and Cognitive Science, Victoria, BC, Canada.

Block, R. A. (2007, June). Intending to remember: Rapid mobilization of attention enhances memory. Paper presented at the meeting of the Canadian Society for Brain, Behaviour and Cognitive Science, Victoria, BC, Canada.

Block, R. A. (2006, August). Intending to remember information: The effectiveness and speed of attentional allocation. Paper presented at the meeting of the Cognitive Science Association for Interdisciplinary Learning, Hood River, OR.

Block, R. A., Bosco, F. A., & Schanz, T. S. (2006, April). The spacing effect: Evidence from duration productions and recognition memory. Poster presented at the meeting of the Western Psychological Association, Palm Springs, CA.

Bosco, F. A., Block, R. A., & Hutchison, K. A. (2005, April). Dual-task interference during incidental- and intentional-memory encoding. Poster presented at the meeting of the Western Psychological Association, Portland, OR .

Pierce, C. A., Block, R. A., & Aguinis, H. (2004, August). Cautionary note on reporting eta-squared values from multifactor ANOVA designs. Paper presented at the meeting of the Academy of Management , New Orleans, LA.

Zhang, Z., & Block, R. A. (2004, August). Factor structure of beliefs about time of Chinese college students. Poster presented at the meeting of the International Congress of Psychology, Beijing , China . [Abstract in International Journal of Psychology, 39, Suppl. S., 317.]

Block, R. A., & Zakay, D. (2004, July). Remembering time. Paper presented at the meeting of the International Society for the Study of Time, Cambridge , England .

Block, R. A., Zakay, D., & Richmond , A. S. (2003, November). Automatic and intentional processes in face encoding. Poster presented at the meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Vancouver , Canada . [Abstract in Abstracts of the Psychonomic Society, 8, 65.]

Zakay, D., & Block, R. A. (2003, July). Prospective duration judgment as a mechanism for the dynamic control of behavior. Paper presented at the Time, Cognition, Thinking symposium, Strzekecino , Poland.

Richmond , A. S., Block, R. A., & Boldry, J. G. (2003, May). Beyond rational judgment: A test of the affect heuristic hypothesis. Poster presented at the meeting of the Western Psychological Association, Vancouver , Canada.

Buggie, S. E., Block, R. A., & Richmond , A. S. (2003, March). Affective meanings of three cultures: Comparisons of American Indians and White Americans. Paper presented at the meeting of Research in Indian Education, Albuquerque , NM.

Johnson, A. S., Lynch, W. C., Block, R. A., & Schwartz, E. A. (2002, November). Associative morphine tolerance in the rat: A meta-analytic review. Poster presented at the meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Block, R. A. (2002, September). Psychological timing without a timer: The roles of attention and memory. Paper presented at the Time and Mind 02 symposium, Hildesheim , Germany .

Gruber, R. P., Wagner, L. F., & Block, R. A. (2001, July). Relationships between subjective time and information processed (level of uncertainty). Paper presented at the meeting of the International Society for the Study of Time, Arezzo , Italy .

Block, R. A., Zakay, D., & Cloninger, M. A. (2000, November). Face and time: Evidence for encoding interference. Poster presented at the meeting of the Psychonomic Society, New Orleans , LA. [Abstract in Abstracts of the Psychonomic Society, 5, 100.]

Block, R. A. (2000, April). Psychological time and consciousness: Temporal experience and brain processes. Paper presented at the meeting of the Toward a Science of Consciousness: Tucson 2000, Tucson, AZ.

Zakay, D., & Block, R. A. (1999, December). Cognitive models of human timing. Paper presented at the meeting of the British Psychological Association, London .

Zakay, D., & Block, R. A. (1999, December). Human timing as adaptive behaviour. Paper presented at the meeting of the British Psychological Association, London .

Block, R. A. (1999, November). Psychological time: Memory, attention, and consciousness. Paper presented at the meeting on Studies on the Structure of Time: From Physics to Psycho(patho)logy, Palermo , Italy .

Buggie, S., Block, R., & Gjeltema, B. (1998, August). American Indians and the Third-World metaphor. Poster presented at the meeting of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, Bellingham , WA .

Buggie, S., Hill, O., & Block, R. (1998, August). Beliefs about time: Comparisons of White Americans, Black Americans, and Black Africans. Poster presented at the meeting of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, Bellingham , WA .

Block, R. A., & Zakay, D. (1998, July). Psychology of time: Past, future, and interdisciplinary issues. Paper presented at the meeting of the International Society for the Study of Time, Tutzing , Germany .

Hill, O. W., Block, R. A., & Buggie, S. E. (1998, May). Cross-cultural comparisons reveal some differences in reported beliefs about time. Poster presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Society, Washington , DC .

Block, R. A., Conti, D. E., Duncan, A. M., & Zakay, D. (1997, November). Workload influences on duration judgments: Meta-analytic findings. Poster presented at the meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Philadelphia .

Zakay, D., Yaaron, M., & Block, R. A. (1997, November). Expertise and accuracy of duration judgments. Poster presented at the meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Philadelphia .

Block, R. A., & Zakay, D. (1996, October). Duration judgments reveal attention and memory processes. Poster presented at the meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Chicago.

Zakay, D., Block, R. A., & Tsal, Y. (1996, July). Prospective time judgments and workload. Paper presented at the conference on Attention and Performance XVII, Beit Orin , Israel .

Block, R. A., Hancock, P. A., & Zakay, D. (1995, July). Human duration judgment: Age- and sex-related differences. Poster presented at the meeting of the International Society for the Study of Time, Sainte-Adèle, Québec , Canada .

Block, R. A., & Zakay, D. (1994, December). Cognitive models of time revisited. Paper presented at the conference on Time and Mind, Regensburg , Germany .

Block, R. A., & Zakay, D. (1994, November). Age-related differences in duration judgment: A meta-analysis. Poster presented at the meeting of the Psychonomic Society, St. Louis , MO.

Zakay, D., & Block, R. A., (1994, November). A functional model of the cognitive timer. Paper presented at the conference on Time and the Dynamic Control of Behavior, Liège , Belgium .

Block, R. A. (1994, April). Time and culture: Important variables and interrelationships. In R. Levine (Chair), Time and culture. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the Western Psychological Association, Kailua-Kona , HI .

Block, R. A., & Zakay, D. (1994, April). Prospective and retrospective duration judgment: A meta-analysis. Poster presented at the meeting of the Western Psychological Association, Kailua-Kona , HI .

Block, R. A. (1993, September). Psychological time: Memory systems and brain processes. Paper presented at the European Neuroscience Programme autumn school on Neural Mechanisms Involved in Psychological and Biological Time Measurement, San Feliu de Guixols, Spain .

Block, R. A. (1993, May). Psychological time and the processing of spatial information. Paper presented at the NCGIA specialist meeting on Time in Geographic Space, Lake Arrowhead , CA .

Block, R. A. (1993, January). Memory, brain, and time. Paper presented at the Eighteenth Annual Interdisciplinary Conference, Jackson , WY .

Block, R. A. (1992, July). Psychological time: Brain and cognitive processes. Paper presented at the meeting of the International Society for the Study of Time, Cerisy-la-Salle , France .

Block, R. A. (1992, January). Prospective and retrospective duration judgments. Paper presented at the Seventeenth Annual Interdisciplinary Conference, Jackson , WY .

Block, R. A. (1991, October). Prospective and retrospective duration judgment: The role of information processing and memory. Paper presented at the conference on Time, Action and Cognition, Saint-Malo , France .

Block, R. A. (1991, October). Creativity strategies. Paper presented at the meeting of the Montana Inventors Association, Bozeman , MT.

Block, R. A. (1989, January). Overconfidence in estimating uncertain quantities. Paper presented at the Fourteenth Annual Interdisciplinary Conference, Jackson , WY .

Block, R. A., & Harper, D. R. (1987, November). Explicit anchoring reduces overconfidence in estimation. Paper presented at the meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Seattle , WA . [Abstract in Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1987, 25, 353.]

Block, R. A. (1987, July). Enhancing cognitive skills. Paper presented at the Institute on Adult Cognition, Montana State University , Bozeman , MT.

Block, R. A., & Harper, D. R. (1986, November). The limits of overconfidence in estimation. Paper presented at the meeting of the Psychonomic Society, New Orleans , LA. [Abstract in Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1986, 24, 351.]

Block, R. A. (1986, July). Time in mind: The vicissitudes of change. Paper presented at the meeting of the International Society for the Study of Time, Totnes , England .

Block, R. A. (1985, November). Varieties of symbolic reasoning. Paper presented at the meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Boston , MA . [Abstract in Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1985, 23, 277.]

Block, R. A. (1985, January). Time and context in memory. Paper presented at the Tenth Annual Interdisciplinary Conference, Jackson , WY .

Block, R. A. (1984, September). Contextual coding in memory: Studies of remembered duration. Paper presented at the conference on Time, Mind, and Behavior, Groningen , The Netherlands.

Block, R. A., & Taylor, S. V. (1984, August). Cognitive skills: Enhancement and assessment issues. In D. F. Halpern (Chair), A Psychological Perspective on Teaching Thinking Skills to College Students. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto , ON . [Report No. HE-018-213. Bozeman , MT : Montana State University . ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 255 157.]

Taylor, S. V., & Block, R. A. (1984, March). The effect of statistical, decision science, and cognitive pedagogic procedures on the generic thinking ability of college students. Paper presented at the meeting of American Institute for Decision Sciences-Western Regional Conference, Honolulu , HI . [Abstract in Proceedings and Abstracts of the Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the American Institute for Decision Sciences-Western Regional Conference. Honolulu , HI : American Institute for Decision Sciences.]

Block, R. A., Nickol, L. H., & Brown, J. A. (1983, November). Serial-position judgments: Accuracy and confidence. Paper presented at the meeting of the Psychonomic Society, San Diego , CA. [Abstract in Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1983, 21, 346.]

Block, R. A. (1983, April). Toward a structure of beliefs about time. In R. A. Block (Chair), New Directions in the Psychology of Time. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the Western Psychological Association, San Francisco , CA .

Block, R. A., Saggau, J. L., & Martin, J. D. (1981, November). Chronopsychology of imagery tasks and memory. Paper presented at the meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Philadelphia , PA. [Abstract in Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1981, 18, 63.]

Block, R. A. (1981, April). Remembered duration: Effects of environmental- and process-context changes. Paper presented at the meeting of the Rocky Mountain Psychological Association, Denver, CO.

Block, R. A. (1980, November). Environmental context and temporal memory judgments. Paper presented at the meeting of the Psychonomic Society, St. Louis , MO. [Abstract in Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1980, 16, 161.]

Block, R. A., George, E. J., & Reed, M. A. (1979, September). A watched pot sometimes boils: A study of duration experience. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, New York .

Block, R. A., & Reed, M. A. (1978, April). Remembered duration: A contextualist approach. Paper presented at the meeting of the Rocky Mountain Psychological Association, Denver, CO.

Rick Block created this web page on May 5, 1995, and last updated it on October 28, 2012.