Rocky Mountain Anthropological Conference


Abstracts of Papers


Abstracts are listed alphabetically by first author's last name.



ARKUSH, Brooke S.; Weber State University, UT
HEATH, Kathleen; University of Utah
MILLER, Susanne J.; Idaho National Engineering Laboratory
YOHE II, Robert M.; Idaho State Historic Preservation Office
Recent Archaeological Investigations at Weston Canyon Rockshelter, Southeastern Idaho

During October 1996, mitigation­oriented test excavations were conducted at Weston Canyon Rockshelter (10­FR­4) by Weber State University after a small portion of the site's deposits were disturbed during replacement of a nearby irrigation pipeline. Earlier excavations there between 1968 and 1970 documented repeated, short­term occupation of the site from approximately 8000 to 2000 BP, most of which was associated with big­game hunting and processing activities. Our investigations at 10­FR­4 consisted mostly of backhoe trenching and hand excavations in front of the shelter's dripline, and revealed the presence of stratified subsurface deposits at least 1.5 meters deep. A single test unit yielded a relatively diverse artifact and ecofact assemblage including aboriginal ceramics and arrow points, neither of which had previously been recovered from the site. This paper focuses upon description of time­sensitive artifacts, and results of faunal and botanical analysis, radiocarbon dating, and obsidian sourcing.
(General Session 3)



BARTHOLOMEW, Alan; University of Wyoming
The Wardell Site Projectile Points: Are They Avonlea?

The Wardell Site (48SU301) is a large communal kill located in the north­central Green River Basin of Wyoming. The site contains three distinct bone levels, all of which date from 990 to 1580 b.p. The projectile point assemblage has been described as Avonlea­like, and would represent the southwestern most example of Avonlea known. Graphical and statistical comparisons with definite Avonlea sites show that the Wardell projectile point assemblage is indeed Avonlea. The assemblage also denotes morphological drift from traditional Avonlea, which may be due to a loss of contact with the core Avonlea area in southern Canada. Movement of groups and movement of ideas are the reasons for why Avonlea projectile points are found in southwestern Wyoming. If Avonlea cultural groups were moving this far south and west, then there must have been some resource that was drawing them. However, the ceramics and other features at the Wardell Site suggest a movement of ideas rather than people.
(General Session 5)



BAUER, Crystal; Montana State University­Bozeman
A Case Study of Interdisciplinary Research: Fort Ellis, Montana

When retelling past events, historians rely on historical records and documents as data for their research. What happens if records have been lost or destroyed? Historians turn to other methods of research, including archaeology. This paper will focus on the importance of combining the historical record with archaeological evidence to obtain a complete history of a particular subject. I will propose a research project using the historic Fort Ellis cemetery, located in Bozeman, Montana, as a case study to examine the relevance of using history and archaeology together.

Fort Ellis, created in 1867 to keep residents safe from Indian attack, was abandoned in 1886. The Fort Ellis cemetery contained the remains of approximately forty individuals. In 1887 the military decided to move these bodies to Fort Missoula. The existing records have little to say concerning the Fort Ellis cemetery and its subsequent removal. In fact, the exact location of the cemetery is unknown. The records that exist contain discrepancies in regard to the number of individuals buried in the cemetery and how many were removed. There is evidence to suggest people are still buried in the abandoned cemetery, which is now an alfalfa field. If the historian depends only on historical evidence the questions about the cemetery will never be answered. By moving from the field of history into archaeology more information can be gathered. An archaeological investigation of the site can reveal the status of the historic remains.
(General Session 2)



BECKES, Michael R.; U. S. Forest Service, MT
Passport In Time

"Passport In Time" is a nationwide volunteer program developed by the National Forest Service in 1989 to provide educational opportunities in public Archeology, History, and Historic Preservation. PIT provides a wide variety of opportunities for individuals and families to work directly with professional archeologists and historians on National Forests throughout the United States. Students, avocationals, retirees, and people from all walks of life gain understanding and sensitivity to cultural resources through hands­on experience on critically important research and restoration projects. Unforgettable outdoor learning experiences and lasting friendships are common outcomes of participation in "Passport In Time".
(Forum 2)



BIES, Michael T.; Bureau of Land Management, WY
Express Pipeline Project: Preliminary Findings in the United States and Canada (Forum Abstract)

This forum will provide an opportunity to see and discuss some of the preliminary findings of the archaeological mitigation conducted for the Express Pipeline Project along the entire route. The project examined a corridor from the Battle River on the northwest plains of Alberta, Canada, to the North Platte River in inter-mountain basins of Wyoming, USA, approximately 1,300 Kilometers (800 miles). The project area varies in elevation from approximately 645 meters (2,120 feet) to approximately 1,935 meters (6,350 feet) and crosses a variety of ecological zones. It is anticipated that the project will provide important new information about human use of the Northwest Plains and Intermountain Basins of the Rocky Mountains.
(Forum 1)



BIES, Michael T.; Bureau of Land Management, WY
Express Pipeline Project: An Overview of the U.S. Portion

This discussion will provide a brief summary of the cultural resource portion of the project in the U. S. and the findings of the inventories and construction inspection. The project resulted in the identification of 378 sites in the U.S., 43 of which were identified during construction inspection.
(Forum 1)



BURNEY, Michael S.; Consulting Tribal Archaeologist, Northern Cheyenne Tribe, MT
Tribal Historic Preservation Offices: An Added Dimension to American Archaeology

Recently, a number of federally recognized Indian tribes, including the Confederated Salish & Kootenai Tribes, Pablo, MT, were approved as Tribal Historic Preservation Offices (THPOs) under the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) Amendments. These tribes have assumed within their exterior reservation boundaries all, or a portion of, the duties previously undertaken by their respective State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). With this acknowledgment, and the passage of NAGPRA in 1990, tribes are increasingly being recognized as major participants in how their cultural resources are identified, evaluated, and managed. This national trend towards supporting THPOs continues to bring an added dimension unbeknown to American archaeology as developed by non­Indian peoples. Increased tribal participation in how natural and cultural resources are managed into the 21st century will better serve the resources themselves.
(General Session 6)



CAJUNE, Julie; Confederated Salish & Kootenai Tribes, MT
Archeology as a Venue for Teaching

Montana is a state rich with the history of varied indigenous cultures, many of which are still viable and present in the state populace. Remnants of people and events of the past are evidenced and cataloged by archaeologists--identifying artifacts and sites with a number. A number that could hardly explain or speak the story of itself. The explanations and stories belong to the living descendants of the creators of those artifacts. The stories remain in the collective memory of the people to whom they belong. The texture and depth of meaning of these records of the past exist within this collective memory of the people. This is where the story must be told from, and these are the people who must tell it.
(Forum 2)



CAPRON, Ranel Stephenson; Bureau of Land Management, WY
Wyoming Project Archaeology

Project Archaeology, part of BLM's national heritage education program, is designed to teach young people to appreciate and protect our rich cultural legacy. The Bureau of Land Management in Wyoming launched their Project Archaeology program this past spring, building on a strong national foundation. The original program was developed in Utah, and eight additional states have established programs (Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, New Mexico, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee and Wyoming).

In Wyoming, a facilitator workshop was held in March at the University of Wyoming. Teachers and archaeologists were trained to work in teams. Since then, eight teacher workshops have been held across the state, reaching almost 200 teachers. The workbooks, Intrigue of the Past and Discovering Archaeology in Wyoming, are the texts used. These books contain prehistoric culture history for Wyoming, lesson plans, and a resource directory advising users of additional materials and resources available. Responses to the workshops have exceeded our expectations and we are looking forward to continued implementation of this archaeology education curriculum in FY98 and beyond.

BLM has not completed this project alone. Workbook materials were reviewed by archaeologists in the University of Wyoming Department of Anthropology, the Office of the Wyoming State Archaeologist, and the Wyoming Department of Transportation. The facilitator workshop was co­sponsored by the State Historic Preservation Office. And BLM has recently completed a cooperative agreement with the Wyoming Association of Professional Archaeologists to cooperate on archaeology education projects. Through these partnerships, archaeology education in Wyoming has taken a giant step forward.
(Forum 2)



CHARLES, Mona; Ft. Lewis College, CO
The Trouble with Mountains: A Geoarchaeological Perspective

This paper identifies several geoarchaeological concerns facing archaeologists as they examine and interpret, for eligibility purposes, archaeological sites in the mountains. Results of investigations by Ft. Lewis College in the San Juan Mountains, southwest Colorado, have identified several transformational characteristics common to many mountainous archaeological sites that complicate eligibility determinations. These characteristics include shallow soil profiles, cumulative soil development that mask subtle cultural horizons, effects of forest fires, recent changes to the site context as a result of historic land­use patterns, soil homogenization and other forms of bioturbation. Criteria used to determine site significance often rely on the sites' potential to yield features, use surfaces, or chronometrically datable buried deposits, which these sites may not possess because of the identified transformational characteristics. A disproportionate number of mountain sites are classified as not eligible when the geomorphic context of the site is not integrated into the evaluation process.
(General Session 1)



CLARK, Linda; Bureau of Land Management, ID
High Altitude Game Trap Sites in Central Idaho

The presence of game traps for bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) has been documented in Montana, Utah and Wyoming, but until recently there have been no trap sites reported in central Idaho. This paper will discuss three high altitude game traps found in the central Idaho mountains in the last two years that are presumably associated with hunting bighorn sheep. Two sites are constructed from wood and consist of extensive fence-like wing structures leading to corrals. Another site, dated to 2600 years BP, is a talus pit complex which appears to represent a bighorn sheep ambush and procurement site.
(General Session 4)



CORBIN, Annalies; Museum of the Rockies, Montana State University­Bozeman
Steamboats Wrecks In Montana: Phase II Strategy and Results

Phase II of a multi-year search for steamboat wrecks in Montana's Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers consists of an analysis of these two river valleys to determine changes in the river channels over the past 137 years. Phase II utilizes the historical information obtained in 1996 to determine locations of wrecks and efforts to salvage cargo. Archival research was conducted to discover additional documents useful in refining the reported locations of the steamboat wrecks and types of cargoes. This phase of the project also added the critical step of intensively mapping the river segments where the wrecks are believed to be located. This research included comparisons of the major historic maps of the rivers, aerial photographs, and modern U.S.G.S. maps to generate computer corrected composite maps in an attempt to narrow the possible wreck locations. These locations will be the target areas for the Phase III "on the ground search" using gradiometers and intensive location specific mapping using magnetometers.
(General Session 2)



CUMMINGS, Linda Scott; Paleo Research Labs, CO
Paleoenvironmental Records From the Early to Mid­Holocene

Stratigraphic pollen and/or phytolith analysis of two early Holocene through mid­Holocene records in Idaho and northwestern Wyoming provide data concerning local response to paleoenvironmental conditions. Mazama ash at Cove Creek in Idaho is a distinctive marker for the pollen and phytolith records. At the Goff Creek site in northwestern Wyoming vegetation communities recorded in the pollen record of the early and middle Holocene are distinctly different from more recent vegetation communities. Dramatic changes in vegetation correlate with geomorphic data. Radiocarbon ages and recovery of cultural material assist in assigning dates to this record.
(General Session 1)



DAVIS, Leslie B.; Museum of the Rockies, Montana State University­Bozeman
HILL, Christopher L.; Museum of the Rockies, Montana State University­Bozeman
Northern Rockies Paleoindian Lifeways and Historic Placer Mining: Golden Research Opportunities

The serendipitous (Barton Gulch) and purposive (Indian Creek) discovery of these two deeply buried, stratified multicomponent Paleoindian occupation sites in the Montana Rockies of southwestern and west­central Montana, respectively, led to their multi­year, systematic, multidisciplinary investigation. The respective artifact­bearing deposits are encorporated within fine­alluvium sequences in low­gradient (Barton Gulch) and steep­gradient (Indian Creek) mountain valley floodplains. These unexpected, and highly informative, late Pleistocene­early Holocene archaeological manifestations were exposed as an effect of intensive, localized commercial mining ventures that targeted specific mineral­bearing alluvial bodies. This paper explores the array of geological formational processes and the effects of historic industrial decisions and placer mining on specific landscapes that have converged to advantage our understanding of Paleoindian hunter­gatherer resource use, settlement behavior, and lifeways in this region. The implications of these insights, from a Paleoindian prospection point of view, for locating in situ artifact­bearing deposits in other placered Rocky Mountain valleys are considered.
(General Session 1)



ECCLES, Cindy; WA
What are Shoshone Knives: An Issue of Style and Function

Uniquely shaped, chipped stone tools, commonly referred to as Shoshone Knives, have been found throughout Wyoming and as isolated surface finds in Nevada. However, over 100 of these bifaces have been found at various sites located around Utah lake, and in lesser quantities at sites to the north along the Great Salt Lake. What are Shoshone Knives, and why are they found in such abundance around Utah Lake? The labels "Shoshone" and "knives" carry assumptions of ethnicity and function, respectively, assumptions that are not supported by an previous research. This paper looks at the temporal and spatial implications for these tools and addresses two assumptions presented by the current label, Shoshone Knives: 1) the presumed ethnic association with "Shoshonean" people; and, 2) the functional term "knife". The analysis of Shoshone Knives will clarify what these tools are and further aid our understanding of the peoples of the Great Basin.
(General Session 5)



ECKERLE, William; Western GeoArch Research, UT
Geoarchaeology of Alluvial Fan and Footslope Depositional Systems in the Northern and Middle Rocky Mountains

Post­glacial alluvial fans and valley­bottom footslope depositional systems in the Middle and Northern Rocky Mountains often contain archaeological sites in association with paleoenvironmental data. In many drainages, fans and footslopes grow during arid periods when the competency of the trunk stream is low. Fan and footslope deposits are back­cut and distally truncated during more mesic periods when trunk stream competency increases. Fan sedimentary records with multiple fan­building depositional events as well as inset fan sequences indicate several periods offan building followed by fan truncation. The interpretation of fan cycles adds data to regional paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Equally important, the fan­building cycles reflect local changes from generally xeric, upland landscapes during fan building to high ground water (subirrigated), floodplain landscapes during fan back­cutting periods. Inferred changes in vegetational communities during these geomorphic shifts suggest a lowering of big game carrying capacities in valley bottoms during arid, fan­building episodes. Subsistence and settlement shifts are predicted as a result of these fan cycles with more big game procurement occurring during mesic periods and a greater emphasis on lower return rate resources during more arid periods.
(General Session 1)



EGGLESTON, Carrick M.; University of Wyoming
KORNFELD, Marcel; University of Wyoming
Use­Wear Studies of Stone Tools: Adapting a New AFM Technology

Use­wear studies of stone tools have a long history and a are a source of acrimonious debates. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), a new technique for observing surface microtopography, has the potential to help resolve some of the contentious issues regarding use wear. In this paper we describe AFM, its limitations and modifications necessary to study use­wear on stone, and discuss several exploratory studies with experimental implements. We quantify changes in stone tool surface topography from the tool edge towards the tool interior. Most probably a combination of several microscopic and spectroscopic techniques are necessary to adequately describe and understand changes in both the physical and chemical characteristics of stone tool edges through use.
(General Session 5)



GALINDO, Jennifer; Midwest Archeological Center, NE
CANNON, Kenneth P.; Midwest Archeological Center, NE
Groundstone Artifacts: Archaeology, Ethnography and Residue Analyses

The presence of groundstone slabs from intermountain contexts have historically been viewed as evidence for plant processing, around which subsistence and settlement models have been developed. While the use of groundstone for plant processing is not disputed, other functions for this tool category are also suggested and should be considered. Recent evidence from Yellowstone National Park and the Cove Creek site (10LH144) along the Salmon River in Idaho suggests groundstone slabs may have been used for purposes other than plant processing. We discuss the evidence obtained from residue analysis in concert with ethnographic data in providing a more definitive model for the use of groundstone among intermountain hunter­gatherers.
(General Session 5)



GARDNER, A. Dudley
Chinese Courtyards and Structural Configuration in Southwestern Wyoming

Over the last seven years, archaeological excavations at Chinatowns in southwestern Wyoming have resulted in the uncovering of several house blocks and courtyards. This paper will focus on how structures evolved in such a way to create courtyards that parallel those found in villages in China.
(Symposium 1)



GREER; Mavis; Archeological Consultants, WY
GREER, John; Archeological Consultants, WY
Shaman Portrayals in Montana Rock Art

Figures that appear to be shamans are found throughout Montana, particularly in the central part of the state. Shaman representations vary within and between sites and range from simple variations on stick-figure humans to elaborate stylized anthropomorphs with animal characteristics. Other attributes include headdresses, arm positions, body adornment, and associated figures such as powerlines, grizzly bears, and turtles. Shaman figures occur in different kinds of physical site locations but in central Montana are mainly in cave rooms. They occur in different kinds of scenes ranging from single figures to integrated groups of figures. Shaman portrayals were drawn by different cultures over a long period of time, but they appear to be most prolific in central Montana between A.D. 500 and 1100. The most elaborate figures probably were associated with Besant and Avonlea cultures.
(General Session 6)



HALL, Christopher T.; University of Wyoming
The Analytical Problem of 'Scale' in Hunter­Gatherer Studies

Over the past decade, literature regarding 'scale' as an analytical problem has become common within many of the sciences. Although this literature covers many topics, most make two basic arguments: 1) Different empirical observations are made at different scales; 2) The scale of analysis must match the scale of the phenomena. Using these arguments, I critically review some of the current trends in hunter-gatherer studies. I then discuss possible directions for future research and model building.
(General Session 6)



HEITZMANN, Rod J.; Archaeological Services, Parks Canada, Calgary
Identifying Human Ignited Fires in the Central Canadian Rockies Over the Last Millennium

Identification of human ignited fires in the Central Canadian Rockies has become central to the debate about ecosystem diversity maintenance in the Rocky Mountain National Parks. A review of ethnographic data identifies several key indicators of human ignited fires. Examination of environmental data from the Canadian Rockies including vegetation distribution, fire histories, dendrochronological studies, glacier studies and plant succession suggests that human ignition of fires likely occurred frequently in an attempt to enhance certain Montane habitats for preferred species of plants and animals. The current evidence suggests human ignited fires reduced after the 1780s in the Canadian Rockies probably as a result of disease caused human population reductions. The Athabasca Valley in Jasper National Park is a significant exception as evidence indicates on­going human fire ignition throughout the nineteenth century as a result of the fur trade.
(Symposium 2)



HOEFER III, Ted; Foothill Engineering Consultants, Inc., CO
MARTORANO, Marilyn A.; Foothill Engineering Consultants, Inc., CO

Who Should Interpret the Past: Archaeology and Local Communities

The past several years have witnessed a change in the role of archaeology and cultural resource management in respect to Native American cultures. A change in the role of archaeology and CRM is needed in respect to local communities, regardless of ethnic origin. Local communities are now being included in decisions on how cultural resources are evaluated and managed and this may cause serious problems for the archaeologist. This paper examines how archaeological and historic investigations can come into conflict with local community values. Local communities often base historic significance on parochial and political criteria, while archaeologists use archaeological, historical, and scientific reasoning. If these two positions are not reconciled at the beginning of investigations, the archaeologist may find him­ or herself being attacked as uncaring, ignorant of local history, or an outsider who seeks to prevent community development. The process of how such a conflict can develop is illustrated using two large-scale historic and archaeological investigations at the Leadville National Historic Mining District, Lake County, Colorado and the Pueblo Chemical Depot, Pueblo County, Colorado. After describing the conflicts encountered on these projects, suggestions on how archaeologists can prepare themselves to prevent or lessen these conflicts are presented.
(General Session 6)



HUSTED, Wilfred M.; Billings, MT
A Later Nesikep Tradition Phase in Western Montana?

An unusual projectile point was found on an earlier excavation surface during earth moving operations preliminary to the final season of excavations at Mummy Cave, Wyoming in 1966. The specimen closely resembles Early Nesikep Tradition points. No additional specimens of this type were recovered in the excavations. Surface collections from the Beartooth and Pryor Mountains of southern Montana and adjacent Wyoming and the Canyon Ferry Reservoir area on the Missouri River near Helena, Montana contain stemmed projectile points similar to and reminiscent of Early Nesikep Tradition types. Their presence strongly suggests a later Nesikep Tradition phase in the Rocky Mountains of Montana and possibly northern Wyoming. Other specimens in the Canyon Ferry and Beartooth­Pryor Mountains collections more nearly resemble stemmed, indented-base points of the later McKean complexes. The Western Macrotradition hypothesis proposed that the stemmed, indented-base projectile point was derived from late Cody complex stemmed points via the Nesikep Tradition in south-central British Columbia. The Nesikep­like points from the Montana mountains lend support to the hypothesis.
(General Session 5)



JOHNSON, Clay; UT
Interactive Rock Art as a Resource for Archaeological Interpretation

Rock art of interactive design is not independent of, but dependent on, durable site-specific physical processes. Because interactive rock art patterning reflects both cultural and natural site formation processes, data from field studies has many potential archeological applications. This paper will define interactive rock art and describes the various observational data gathered during field documentation and its potential uses for archeologists. Data include information for studies or hypothesis testing in areas including repatination rates, lichen growth, geologic disturbance or change, subsistence or other seasonal behaviors, settlement mode, symbolism, site extent and use, relationships between archeological sites, and absolute dating of rock art.
(General Session 6)



KARSMIZKI, Kenneth W.; Museum of the Rockies, Montana State University­Bozeman
CORBIN, Annalies; Museum of the Rockies, Montana State University­Bozeman
Fort Remon: Magnetic Survey and Archaeological Testing

November 27th, 1807, Manuel Lisa and his cadre of over 40 men reached the mouth of the Big Horn River in present­day Montana. They immediately began to construct a trading house in the heart of the Crow country and, by the spring of 1808, a fort was completed. Lisa's outpost, named Fort Remon, is a place of considerable significance in the history of the West. Historian Richard Oglesby, in his biography of Manuel Lisa, notes that this was "the first organized trading and trapping expedition to ascend the Missouri to the Rocky Mountains." Equally important, this initial foray represented United States' interests rather than those of the French or English who had dominated the western fur trade up to that point. Yet, the location of Fort Remon has not been proven and the activities at this post are not well represented in written documents. In the absence of well developed documentary evidence, the archaeological record is certain to be the best source of information on affairs at Fort Remon.
(General Session 2)



KINDIG, Jean Matthews; University of Colorado Museum Association, Boulder
Devil's Thumb Trail Site

In the summer of 1995, a few ceramic sherds were noticed in and near a popular hiking/backpacking trail east of the Continental Divide in the Indian Peaks Wilderness. Limited excavations, permitted by the Boulder Ranger District of the Roosevelt NF, resulted in the recovery of over 150 ceramic sherds. Five of seven rim sherds have diagonally impressed lip decorations similar to sherds found at sites associated with the Dismal River Aspect of the Plains Apache. One of the ongoing research questions is the migration route of Athapaskans from the Northwest Territories. There is more evidence for a Plains migration route than an Intermountain route. Dismal River ceramics excavated at a high altitude site do not confirm or nullify an Intermountain route. Apache presence, however, is confirmed by the ceramics which strongly suggests family groups utilizing the mountains during (at least) seasonal migrations.
(General Session 3)



KORNFELD, Marcel; University of Wyoming
Feminist Archeology, Black's Fork Culture, and Rocky Mountain Prehistory

Black's Fork Culture plays on the sidelines in Rocky Mountain prehistory. It was a poorly conceived notion, based on faulty conception of cultural evolution and it's material byproducts. The archeological record, however, remains and begs for explanation and interpretation. Early dismissal of Black's Fork diagnostics as quarry blanks or associated materials was unwarranted, in that there was a larger story to tell with this data. My study begins with archeological epistemology. Specifically, the imagination and creativity needed for the science to move beyond traditional knowledge and understanding and into new realms of inquiry. With this Black's Fork culture acquires a new meaning.
(General Session 6)



LANDALS, Alison; University of Calgary
A Re­evaluation of the Lake Minnewanka Site, Banff National Park

The Lake Minnewanka site in Banff National Park, Alberta, is one of the oldest known sites in the Canadian Rockies. Diagnostic artifacts collected from the reservoir shoreline span the entire precontact sequence, from the Late Prehistoric to Clovis times. In 1993, TransAlta Utilities Corporation contracted Fedirchuk McCullough & Associates Ltd. to develop a cultural resources mitigation plan for their license renewal application for the Cascade Hydroelectric generating facility. Excavation at the Lake Minnewanka site revealed a small area with partially intact stratigraphy and cultural material suggestive of an Early Prehistoric, possibly Clovis, occupation. In the spring of 1997 additional investigations were undertaken in this area, under the auspices of a research grant from Parks Canada. This paper documents the results of the 1993 and 1997 programs at the site.
(General Session 3)



LANDALS, Alison; University of Calgary
Preliminary Findings of Stone Feature Sites Located in the Canadian Portion of the Express Pipeline Project

The Canadian portion of the Express Pipeline Project intercepted in excess of 135 stone feature sites. These sites varied widely in terms of their distribution, the density and type of stone features present, and richness of the associated artifact assemblages. Many of the stone circles and some of the cairns were characterized by dense concentrations of cultural material. Express provided a unique north/south transect suitable for examining large scale geographic variation in stone circle distribution. In this paper the distribution and quality of stone feature sites along the Express right­of­way will be examined in relation to existing models for stone feature distribution on the northern plains.
(Forum 1)



LARSON, Mary Lou; University of Wyoming
Hearth Centered Chipped Stone Technological Organization at the Bugas­Holding Site, Wyoming

The Late Prehistoric (1510 +/­ 100 B. P.) Bugas­Holding site located in Northwestern Wyoming is arguably one of the best preserved archaeological sites known in North America. Excavations conducted in the 1980s revealed the remains of a single occupation winter campsite inhabited for 4­6 months. Work centered on nine firehearths and surrounding activity areas. Studies of site formation and approximately equal numbers of intensively butchered and processed bison and mountain sheep remains have already been completed. The analysis of chipped stone remains provides another information source about the features and the activities occurring in their vicinity. This paper uses the chipped stone analysis to provide information about this already well analyzed site.
(General Session 5)



LESICK, Kurtis S.; University of Calgary
Home to the Human Species: Human/Environmental Interactions in the Mountain Eco­Systems of the Northern Rockies (Symposium Abstract)

The Rocky Mountains are generally regarded as a pristine natural space, liminal in terms of fulfilling human requirements; they remain conceptualised as a boundary to human incursion, or at best an inhospitable and temporary host to traveling populations. Yet, it is becoming increasingly evident that human beings have as in­depth a history within mountain environments as those other species more often regarded as indigenous and 'natural'. The papers in this symposium seek to situate their archaeological subjects in such a context. Rather than viewing mountain landscapes as a forbidding and daunting opposition to human use, the human species is viewed as a influential participant in an active and continually evolving ecological setting. In this way, eco­systemics and bio­diversity are not pre­established entities which succumb to human interference; they are, however, a product of the constant interaction and mutual interdependence of human beings, a myriad of floral and faunal species and their surrounding material environments.
(Symposium 2)



LESICK, Kurtis S.; University of Calgary
Archaeological Settings as Ecological Productions: Trajectories for Discussion

It is more than evident that there is a strong correlation between environment and cultural systems. Yet, the implications of such a link run far deeper than environmental determinism: humanity does not merely respond to environmental constraints, but works as an active participant in the very system which regulates the character of any one landscape. As such, the relationship between regional ecology and human agents is one which ignores the limitations of the nature/culture dichotomy. In a dynamic ecological setting, human beings become natural actors, and natural features become cultural appropriations. In a mountain context, this would mean that a once deficient cultural environment is replace by an expansive ecological system. Not only are we enlightened as to new ways of studying regional cultural history, but we are also able to assess the role of past human agency in establishing environmental integrity and bio­diversity.
(Symposium 2)



LOOSLE, Byron; Ashley National Forest, UT
Boundaries, Border and High Mountains

For millennia the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah appear to have been a natural barrier to human populations. Most group interaction was limited to areas along the Green River in the eastern Uintas. Harrowing stories of the construction and use of early roads only reinforced the perception of the Uintas as an impenetrable wilderness. Recent research has found widespread prehistoric use of even the highest passes of the Uintas. Focusing on the Fremont period, there is extensive evidence (baskets, corn, granaries, rock art) north of the Uintas. At the same time raw materials originating from the north slope have been found south of the Uintas in the Uintah Basin, even when other material is more accessible. Documenting evidence of interaction is easier then developing the theoretical models to explain the interaction, but two models will be outlined.
(General Session 4)



LOVE, Charles M.
The Delaney Rim Chert Sources

In the Washakie Basin of southwestern Wyoming, a series of massive chert sources weather out of the Laney member of the Eocene Green River Formation. Forming a topographic feature known as Delaney Rim, these cherts have been extensively quarried by prehistoric populations and subsequently spread around the region. The cherts are visually distinctive in that they are silica replacements of various sedimentary structures that formed in Eocene Lake Gosiute. While color and texture vary, many types of oolites, algal heads, mat algae, other organic structures, and siliceous oozes are represented. Parts of Delaney Rim collapsed during the Pleistocene and formed debris flows redistributing the cherts downstream for 20 kilometers. Lag pebbles of the same cherts have been unevenly spread northward from Plio­Pleistocene erosion of Delaney Rim. Although exposed for at least 40 kilometers along Delaney Rim or parallel to it, together the cherts form nearly a point source for the state.
(Symposium 1)



MAGNE, Martin; Archaeological Services, Parks Canada, Calgary
Archaeology and Rocky Mountain Ecosystem Management: Theory and Practice

The benefits that could be obtained by a collaborative relationship between archaeological sciences and ecosystem management principles and application are only just beginning to be realized. Examination of current theoretical directions reveals commonalities that need to be developed more firmly, at the same time that archaeology needs to express more confidence in its potential contributions. Examples of archaeology applied to ecosystem issues in the Canadian Rocky Mountain National Parks are discussed, indicating where substantial research is yet required.
(Symposium 2)



MARTIN, William; TRC Mariah Associates, WY
The Use of Late Prehistoric Pottery in the Western Powder River Basin of Wyoming: A View from Site 48NA1425

During the spring of 1996, TRC Mariah Associates conducted data recovery excavations at Site 48NA1425 (the Carter Site) in anticipation of the construction of the Express Pipeline. In addition to the large, diverse lithic and biological assemblages, over 550 ceramic sherds were recovered, representing one of the largest ceramic assemblages recovered to date in Wyoming. A radiocarbon age estimate of 580+/­60 years BP was obtained from a wood charcoal sample from the only feature recovered at the site. While the main emphasis of ceramic analyses in the past has been on the ethnic identity of ceramic making groups in the region, archaeologists have paid little attention to the technological importance of pottery in the settlement/subsistence systems of hunter/gatherer groups. Examination of the ceramic assemblage and technological attributes is used to examine the role of pottery in the settlement and subsistence system of Late Prehistoric groups in central Wyoming.
(Forum 1)



MARTIN, William; TRC Mariah Associates, WY
PETERSON, Lynelle A.; MT
Preliminary Findings at Four Middle Archaic Pit House Sites on the Express Pipeline Route

Post­construction excavations during the summer of 1997 on the Express Pipeline Project at four locations, one in Montana and three in Wyoming, focused on pithouses. These sites have been initially radiocarbon dated to the Middle Archaic period approximately 4,000 years before present. This paper provides a preliminary look at these sites, which have many similarities. All of the sites also include a large number of other features, hearths or roasting pits, but have very low artifact counts. Three of the sites are located in the Bighorn Basin and one is in the Powder River Basin. These features were discovered during the project construction inspection. Only one of the sites had a surface manifestation identified prior to construction.
(Forum 1)



MILLER, Susanne J.; Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory
YOHE II, Robert M.; Idaho State Historical Society
Taphonomic Studies at the Tolo Lake Mammoth Site, Idaho: Preliminary Observations

The 1994­1995 field seasons at the Tolo Lake mammoth site in north central Idaho yielded more than 400 fossilized vertebrate specimens, the majority of which have been attributed to the Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus sp. cf. M. columbi). Excavations at the Ivory Coast locality exposed a MNI of 10 individual mammoths, one of which is more than 90 percent complete. Two very different taphonomic settings were readily apparent at the Ivory Coast; deposition of disarticulated skeletal elements on the rocky lake margin, in contrast to partial or complete individuals in fine sediments slightly offshore. This paper will explore these two settings and report the preliminary observations made on the remains from both areas.
(General Session 1)



MOE, Jeanne M.; Bureau of Land Management, UT
The Interface Between Archaeology and Education (Forum Abstract)

For the last few years archaeologists across the country have been visiting classrooms, teaching teachers, and leading volunteers on field expeditions. Although the audiences are diverse and techniques differ, most archaeologists involved in public education share a common goal: to increase knowledge and appreciation of cultural resources and to enhance their protection through widespread stewardship.

In this forum, we will hear presentations on archaeology and education, followed by open discussion. The interactive session will provide practical information on educating the public in a variety of settings. There are many excellent outreach programs and individual efforts not included here due to time constraints, therefore we strongly encourage other archaeology educators to attend and share their experiences.
(Forum 2)



MUNGER, Ben; U. S. Forest Service, MT
Comparison of the Archeology in Three Mountain Ranges in Western Montana

There appear to be three critical resources that drew prehistoric peoples into the areas above timberline in southwest Montana. The three critical resources are bighorn sheep, a primary source of chipped­stone material, and whitebark pine nuts. Mountain ranges in the Northern Rockies where all of these resources occur have a higher archeological site density than those that have limited critical resources. The Bitterroot Range, dividing the Clearwater and Clarkfork Rivers, has a high site density as does the Gravelly Range between the Madison and Ruby Rivers. The Anaconda­Pintler Range does not appear have a high site density because one resource is missing: a high-quality chipped-stone tool source. Research into the settlement data for the past 7 years also indicates that the areas above timberline were utilized in a logistic manner with base camps at lower elevations and field camps at or above timberline.
(General Session 4)



PETERSON, Lynelle A.; MT
Preliminary Findings of Investigations Conducted on Stone Feature Sites Located Within 20 Counties of Montana

In 1996 Express constructed a 775 mile pipeline from Hardesty, Alberta to Casper, Wyoming. Sites containing stone features (stone rings, cairns, alignments, etc.) were the most common site type found within the Montana portion of the Express pipeline route. Although common, stone feature sites often do not yield sufficient information potential to warrant extensive subsurface investigations. To mitigate the impact of construction to this site type, a review of stone feature sites identified within 20 counties in Montana is currently underway. This paper provides preliminary findings from this investigation.
(Forum 1)



SANDERS, Paul H.; Office of the Wyoming State Archaeologist
BRYSON, Robert U.; Archaeoclimatology Consultants, CA
BRYSON, Reid A.; Center for Climatic Research, University of Wisconsin, Madison
Modeled Holocene Climatic History and Archaeological Occupation of the Lamar Valley, Northeastern Yellowstone National Park

Four sites in the Lamar Valley of northeastern Yellowstone where investigated in 1996. These sites have yielded a series of radiocarbon dates indicating occupations during the past 3000 years. An archaeoclimatological model and regional sedimentological data have provided a paleoclimatic reconstruction for the area. When these data are compared, patterns concerning the prehistoric use of the area emerge, suggesting that this area was primarily occupied during moist climatic events. Characteristics of this use are discussed.
(General Session 1)



SANDGATHE, Dennis; University of Alberta
FRANCIS, Peter D.; Archaeological Services, Parks Canada, Calgary
Lithic Resources and Technological Choices in the Upper Red Deer River Region, Alberta

The Upper Red Deer region within the Eastern Slopes of the Canadian Rocky Mountains has become a focus of recent archaeological interest as a promising area for yielding evidence of human activity reaching back in time to the early peopling of North America. Within that region, two independent studies within and adjacent to Parks Canada's Ya­Ha­Tinda Ranch have provided data that may suggest that Early and Middle Prehistoric groups here developed a stone tool technological organization that was adapted to local "lower quality" lithic resources. This is in contrast to the adjacent Northern Plains where, during these same periods in prehistory, great efforts were apparently made to obtain "high quality" lithic raw materials from distant sources.

The "lower quality" (siliceous sedimentary) lithic resources available in the Upper Red Deer River region are less amenable to flaking than materials used more commonly throughout the continent by aboriginal peoples. However, when advantage is taken of their specific physical attributes, a technology could be developed that, with a greater emphasis on expedient tools, is as functionally efficient as those based on formal tools manufactured from "high quality" obsidian or cryptocrystalline materials. This adaptation to "lower quality" local materials appears to be unique to this area and suggests that groups here had a greater reliance on resources available in the immediate environment relative to contemporary groups in other regions.
(Symposium 2)



SCHOEN, James R.; U. S. Forest Service, WY
High Altitude Site Locations in the Bridger, Gros Ventre and Teton Wilderness

Recent archeological surveys conducted in the Bridger, Gros Ventre and Teton Wilderness areas of Northwest Wyoming has resulted in the identification of high site density areas associated with high elevation lake systems and the arctic-alpine environmental life zones. Data from all three survey areas are compared in an attempted to draw conclusions concerning the seasonal use of these high altitude zones. Analysis of lithic material types is reviewed to help identify potential travel networks between the high altitude site locations to known obsidian sources as well as other lithic source areas in the surrounding basins.
(General Session 4)



SHANKS, Orin; University of Wyoming
KORNFELD, Marcel; University of Wyoming
Immunological Identification of Ancient Proteins: Blood Residue Analysis of Bugas­Holding Tools

Recently archeologists have demonstrated an increasing interest in molecular techniques and their application to the understanding of past lifeways. The ability to identify ancient blood proteins from a stones has the potential to address questions of intra­site and inter­site activities. Blood residue identification is on the cutting edge of archeological methodology, and as a result is still not accepted universally among academic researchers. We utilize the counter­immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) technique and apply controls designed to counter thecritiques leveled against blood residue analysis in the study of Bugas­Holding site stone tools. The Bugas­Holding site is located in northwestern Wyoming and exhibits extremely high site integrity and resolution. The site has a long history of archeological investigation including sedimentology, geological, spatial, faunal, chipped stone, pollen, and opal phytolith analyses. The combination of high levels of preservation and the establishment of "site specificity" provides a unique opportunity to learn more about Rocky Mountain prehistoric lifeways and ancient blood protein residue identification. CIEP analysis positively identified blood residues on 17% of the tested artifacts. Immunological results support and agree with other studies of activities identified at the Bugas­Holding site. This case study supplies evidence that CIEP can reproduce repeatable and reliable results, and that immunological identifiable blood can and does survive under opportune environmental conditions.
(General Session 5)



SHERFY, Marcella; Montana Historical Society
Heritage Learning/Ancient Teachings Projects

After almost 20 years of providing several kinds of trunks, tours, slide units, and programs to Montana teachers and students, the Montana Historical Society is currently rethinking and revamping its efforts. A grant from the Society for American Archaeology is currently helping us evaluate the kinds of materials that teachers will REALLY use, and develop some of those. We've just created a Teacher Advisory Panel to help us screen other products and programs. And, we are involved in a privately funded pilot program that concentrates high school heritage learning on the communities and areas in which students live. We are committed to developing programs that will see wide and practical Montana use.
(Forum 2)



SIEGFRIED, Evelyn; University of Calgary
A Review of Holocene Palynology and Vegetation in Southwestern Alberta

Prior to the Holocene epoch (before 10,000 BP) the landscape of southern Alberta was inundated by vast continental glaciation when Laurentide ice moved overland from the east eventually meeting Cordilleran ice as it moved forward from the Rocky Mountains. Following the retreat of the continental glaciers, an event debated to have taken place at some time between 17,000­10,000 BP (e.g., see Vickers 1986:20­24), the landscape was populated by vegetation that moved north from refugia south of the ice sheets. Various species of arboreal (overstory; canopy) and non­arboreal (understory; low­growing herbs and shrubs) plants filled the newly scoured landscape through time, at varying rates and through different succession regimes. Several pollen analyses have been conducted in more recent decades at various locations in the eastern flanks of the Rocky Mountains from Jasper National Park south to the Waterton Park area in southwestern Alberta. These pollen records are examined to outline a profile of vegetation change through time from the end of the Pleistocene through the Holocene in the southwestern Alberta region.
(Symposium 2)



SMITH, Craig; TRC Mariah Associates, WY
Cylindrical Basins and the Exploitation of Roots During the Late Prehistoric Period, Northern and Central Wyoming

Six sites containing large cylindrical basins were investigated for the Express Pipeline project in Wyoming. These distinct features occur both in the Big Horn and Wind River Basins and date between 1260 and 1050 years ago indicating a wide geographic range and a relatively short time span. The overall archaeologic and ethnographic evidence suggests that they were used primarily as pit ovens for baking some type of root resource. The type of root baked in these ovens was probably one containing complex carbohydrates such as inulin and fructan that require long term heat treatment. The large number of these ovens scattered across the landscape suggests that root resources played an important role in the prehistoric inhabitants subsistence and that an intensification of root use occurred during the 200 year period represented by these features. Past research of prehistoric hunter-gatherer subsistence in the Rocky Mountain and Plains areas has generally neglected the importance of this resource.
(Forum 1)



SUTTON, Wendy; Columbia University
The Blooded Fields of Big Lie: An Interpretation of Activities at a Small­Scale Camp/Kill Site in the Big Horn Mountains

Big Lie (48SH849) was excavated by the US Forest Service during the summer of 1993. The site dates to the Late Prehistoric/Protohistoric. Materials recovered from the site suggest that the site was inhabited briefly, by a small band, during the summer. The site was both a camp and small­scale bison kill site. Ceramics and a lithic cache were found at the site.

This presentation will offer an interpretation of prehistoric activities carried out at Big Lie. Through using ethnographic information as a basis for this interpretation, the presenter hopes to offer a peopled (if somewhat creative) reconstruction of life at Big Lie.
(General Session 3)



TANNER, Russel L.; Bureau of Land Management, WY
PASTOR, Jana V.; Archaeological Services of Western Wyoming College
The Lay of the Land: Looking at Landscape as a Way of Studying Past Human Occupation of the Green River Basin

A comparison of archaeological site locations with Demitri Shimkin's Wind River Shoshone Ethnogeography was undertaken. The study will assess how well Shimkin's work using ethnohistoric sources is reflected in the archaeological record during prehistoric and protohistoric times.
(Symposium 1)



THOMPSON, Kevin W.; Western Wyoming College
KAUTZMAN, Matthew; Western Wyoming College
Wyoming Basin Archaeology: Current Directions (Symposium Abstract)

The Wyoming Basin has been the scene of an increased amount of archaeological investigation in the last decade. The data have been produced by a wide variety of multi­disciplinary researchers, including academics, resource managers, and consultants. The focus of this symposium will be twofold: examining the existing data sets to identify cultural entities and associated lifeways, and new avenues for analyzing data sets.
(Symposium 1)



THOMPSON, Kevin W.; Archaeological Services of Western Wyoming College
PASTOR, Jana V.; Archaeological Services of Western Wyoming College
ECKERLE, William; Western GeoArch Research, UT
INGBAR, Eric E.; Gnomon, Inc., NV
Riverine Adaptation in Southwest Wyoming

Researchers have long lamented the dearth of data from riverine sites, especially in the western portion of the Wyoming Basin. Recent investigations by Western Wyoming College focusing on human occupation of the lower terraces of the Green River have provided new information about the importance of the riverine environment to the overall settlement and subsistence practices. In addition to extensive geoarchaeological and paleoenvironmental studies, the data recovery project incorporated some excavation techniques previously untried in the area. GIS mapping was used as an analytical tool. This paper examines diachronic change of the Green River landscape.
(Symposium 1)



TIMMONS, Rebecca S.; U. S. Forest Service, MT
Montana's Heritage: Bringing Archaeology Into the Classroom

I will discuss the production of the Montana's Heritage: Bringing Archaeology into the Classroom elementary school teaching guide, created in 1994 by the U.S.F.S. Kootenai National Forest.
(Forum 2)



TIMMONS, Rebecca S.; U. S. Forest Service, MT
The Role of Fire in Northern Rocky Ecosystems: Effects on Heritage Resources

Fire has been a natural disturbance force in Northern Rocky Mountain ecosystems for millennia. Ecosystems have been sculpted by fire and indigenous people have emulated natural fire patterns. Plant and animal species have adapted to fire regimes quite different from that of the last 100 years. the last century of active fire suppression has altered ecosystems in the Northern Rockies. Exclusion of fire has pushed many plants, considered important to Tribes today, into the fringes of habitats. The tremendous build­up of fuels has posed unprecedented danger to archaeological sites, turning sites into bonfire piles. Federal agencies are reintroducing fire into the landscape in order to restore healthy ecosystems. Consequently, we must begin to piece together the complex puzzle of fire effects on heritage resources. We can also use this knowledge to interpret post­depositional impacts to sites that have been exposed to thousands of years of forest fire. Through this type of research, we may finally be able to explain some perplexing artifact and feature patterns. This paper will discuss the history of aboriginal burning by the Kootenai people and the field experiments underway to understand fire effects in northern forests.
(General Session 6)



UNFREED, Wendy J.; Fedirchuk McCullough & Associates Ltd., Alberta
Bison Processing Practices in Southeastern Alberta: A Comparison of Middle Precontact Sites DlOq 17 and FbOt 20

Throughout its 454 kilometre length in Alberta, the Express Pipeline covered a broad range of environments, from the grasslands of the southeastern portion of the province, to the parkland at the northern terminus of the line. As a result, archaeological investigation of the development was provided with a unique environmental transect within which to sample. Within this sample, two significant bison kill primary processing sites, DlOq 17 and FbOt 20, were investigated in detail. Although the two sites appear to have a number of characteristics in common, including the spatial placement in an creek floodplain and similar temporal affiliations, they are found in the grasslands and parklands, respectively. The purpose of the paper is to compare and contrast the content, inter-site spatial patterning of materials and patterns of bone processing within these sites, in order to provide the basis for discussions regarding environmental, seasonal, or cultural differences.
(Forum 1)



VICKERS, J. Rod; Archaeological Survey, Provincial Museum of Alberta, Calgary
Cultural Resource Management in Alberta, Canada

In 1973, the Provincial Legislature of Alberta passed the Alberta Historical Resources Act. This act contained two principles which have structured Cultural Resource Management in subsequent years. The first defined all historical resources (historic, archaeological and palaeontological sites and materials) as the property of the Crown. The second principle was one of "proponent pays." The first principle ensured that there would be no private ownership of historical resources, regardless of land ownership, and thus prevented the formation of a market for historical properties. The second principle ensured that developers who might disturb the Crown's historical resources would be responsible for funding impact assessments and mitigation studies. The Legislature established the Archaeological Survey to implement the Act. Our approaches to cultural resource management, as applied to the Express Pipeline Project, have been developed pragmatically. Justification for impact mitigation decisions is based on professional assessment of consultants' recommendations by government archaeologists rather than by reference to formal criteria such as occurs the United States.
(Forum 1)



VIVIAN, Brian C.; University of Calgary
SHORTT, Mack; University of Calgary
Surveying the High Country of Banff and Glacier (MT) National Parks

High altitude archaeology has increasingly come to the fore over the last two decades across North America. Cultural resource surveys throughout the western Cordillera have revealed a rich and varied archaeological record. Nonetheless, the articulation of Precontact land­use and mountain ecosystems remains synthesized at a general level at best. More intensive survey coverage of high altitude environments indicates that land­use patterns may vary greatly over several hundred kilometres. To illustrate this point, results of recent archaeological surveys within Glacier National Park, Montana, and Banff National Park are introduced. The particular ecosystem of each region is presented and the character and distribution of archaeological sites are discussed as a means of comparing and contrasting the patterns of Precontact land­use of each park area respectively. Conclusions will highlight the contributions intensive surveys may make toward a finer resolution of high altitude land­use throughout these portions of the Rocky Mountains.
(Symposium 2)



VLCEK, David T.; Bureau of Land Management, WY
McKean or Not McKean. . . Is That the Question? A Reevaluation of Fourth to Fifth Millennia Prehistoric Occupation in the Upper Green River Basin

Numerous prehistoric sites dated from 3800 to 5000 radiocarbon years ago occur in the upper Green River Basin. These sites also contain sandstone slab-lined pits, Archaic­aged points with stemmed and indented bases and, infrequently, housepits. Several new Wyoming Basin chronologies don't seem to allow for the trait complex, called McKean on the Plains, in recognized Pine Spring, Opal, or Green River phases. This paper examines data from the upper Green River basin, compares it with the extensive McKean components excavated during the Shute Creek project and other nearby sites. A new chronology more sensitive to perceived archaeological occupations within the upper basin is proposed.
(Symposium 1)



WALKER, Danny N.; Wyoming State Archaeologist's Office
DE VORE, Steven; National Park Service
SOMERS, Lewis; Geoscan, Inc.
WALKER, James; Brigham Young University, UT
Archaeological Applications of Geophysical Remote Sensing to Historical Archaeology: A Summary of Work From Fort Laramie National Historical Site

During the past five years, geophysical remote sensing has been extensively applied to several projects at Fort Laramie National Historic Site, Wyoming. Techniques used include soil resistivity, magnetics, ground penetrating radar, and low­level large scale aerial photography. Several feature types have been examined, including foundations, depressions, fortified entrenchments, dump areas, and cemeteries. The usefulness of such techniques in the preliminary stages of historic site investigations at Fort Laramie has been demonstrated during every project. With the proper preliminary application and interpretation of these remote sensing techniques on historic sites, massive amounts of time and money can be saved for the sponsoring client. A call for their increased use before formal archaeological investigations is made.
(General Session 2)



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Modified 29 August 1997, JF