The three-year grant - announced Tuesday, Oct. 25, by U.S. Agriculture Deputy Secretary Kathleen Merrigan -- was one of 23 awarded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Institute of Food and Agriculture in 18 states. The grants totaling $19 million were given through two programs: the Organic Agriculture Research and Extension Initiative and the Organic Transitions Program.
"These days, there's lots of competition for these funds. Funding is getting harder to find," said Patrick Hatfield, principal investigator of MSU's project and a professor in the Department of Animal and Range Sciences.
He was pleased, therefore, that MSU's project was ranked first among all the projects submitted, Hatfield said. It not only meant that MSU received the grant, but it meant that MSU's proposal was fully funded.
Merrigan said in her announcement that the purpose of the new grants is to help organic producers and processors grow and market high quality organic agricultural products.
"As more and more farmers adopt organic agriculture practices, they need the best science available to operate profitable and successful organic farmers," Merrigan said. "America's brand of organic agricultural goods is world-renowned for its high quality and abundance of selection. These research and extension projects will give producers the tools and resources to produce quality organic food and boost farm income, boosting the 'Grown in America' brand."
Hatfield said organic farmers don't use chemicals to control weeds, so they often rely on tilling the soil. But too much tilling and plowing can cause soil to wash away or blow away. The worst scenarios occurred during the 1930s when dust storms carried tons of topsoil for hundreds of miles.
The long-term goal of MSU's study is to integrate sheep into farming systems in a way that's profitable and environmentally sustainable, Hatfield said.
"Our goal is to use targeted sheep grazing to reduce tillage intensity, nitrogen leaching, greenhouse gas emission and improve soil fertility and soil carbon sequestration, while taking advantage of weeds, cover crops and crop residues for fiber and meat production," Hatfield said.
The research project will focus on five crops grown in rotation over five years, Hatfield said. The crops include sweet clover, flax, winter wheat, lentils and spring wheat. Sweet clover will add nitrogen to the soil. Sheep manure and urine will act as natural fertilizers.
Most of the research will be done in the Bozeman area, at the Fort Ellis Research Farm and the Bozeman Agricultural Research and Teaching Farm (BART), formerly known as the Towne Farm.
In addition to the research, MSU faculty members will develop two new undergraduate courses and incorporate their findings into those and existing courses, Hatfield said. Stephanie Ewing, a soil chemist in the Department of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences (LRES), will develop a soil conservation and carbon sequestration course based in part on the research project. Hatfield will develop and teach a class on using sheep and other livestock in sustainable production systems. Perry Miller, an agroecologist in LRES will lead field trips to Fort Ellis during the organic cropping systems module of the sustainable cropping systems course he teaches. Anton Bekkerman, agricultural economist in the Department of Agricultural Economics/Economics, will use results from this project to introduce student to the economics of agricultural markets.
MSU's project is truly interdisciplinary and a team effort, Hatfield said. Besides faculty members already mentioned, other team members are Fabian Menalled, a weed ecologist in LRES; Upendra Sainju, a soil scientists with the USDA ARS; Zach Miller, an ecologist in the Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology; Paul Lachapelle, a community development specialist in the Department of Political Science, Andrew Lenssen, an agroecologist with the USDA ARS and Irene Grimberg, an educational evaluator in the Department of Physics.
The project also involves an advisory board made up of growers and producers around the state, Hatfield said. Among them is Becky Weed, owner of the Thirteen Mile Lamb and Wool Company of Belgrade. Weed and her husband, David Tyler, raise certified organic sheep that eat grass, clover and alfalfa that are grown without chemical herbicides or fertilizers. The couple gives their sheep no antibiotics or hormone supplements. Mariann Van Den Elzen grows vegetables that that are certified organic and sustainable on the Thirteen Mile farm.
Weed management is a problem on organic farms, Weed said. She said she and others hope that sheep will reduce weeds while helping prepare the soil for crops.
Evelyn Boswell, (406) 994-5135 or firstname.lastname@example.org