BOZEMAN -- Montana State University is part of a national network that just received $14.5 million to create and operate a center for detecting gravitational waves, an achievement expected to offer radical new insights about the universe.
The National Science Foundation announced Monday, March 30, that it had awarded the grant to the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) to establish a Physics Frontiers Center (PFC). MSU astrophysicist Neil Cornish is a senior member of the center, and his research group will receive $403,000 under the award. Cornish joined the NANOGrav collaboration in 2013.
“The funding from the NSF to Dr. Cornish and his colleagues is well-deserved,” said Renee Reijo Pera, MSU’s vice-president for research and economic development. “This funding supports the establishment of the Extreme Gravity Institute at MSU which is one of our key research priorities. We are most pleased to be a part of the project.”
Cornish said the project will advance MSU’s research, and is very much in line with the new Extreme Gravity Institute. Interestingly, he said MSU professor Ron Hellings did foundational work in the area of gravitational waves some 40 years ago, and the well-known term for the angles between pulsars is named after him. It’s called the Hellings and Downs Curve.
The NANOGrav PFC will be a virtual center that will look at black holes so huge that they take months to years to complete their orbits, Cornish said. It will provide a unique opportunity for astronomers and solar physicists to work together.
According to the research team, the NANOGrav PFC will address a transformational challenge in astrophysics: the detection of low-frequency gravitational waves. Gravitational waves are elusive ripples in the fabric of space-time, which theories predict should arise from extremely energetic and large-scale cosmic events, such as orbiting pairs of massive black holes found at the centers of merging galaxies, phase transitions in the very early universe, or as relics from cosmic inflation, the period just after the Big Bang when all of the universe that we can see expanded rapidly from a minuscule volume in a tiny fraction of a second.
In Einstein’s theory of gravity, these events produce waves that distort, or ripple, the actual fabric of the cosmos as they emanate throughout space. The waves have such a long wavelength --significantly larger than our solar system -- that we cannot build a detector large enough to observe them. Fortunately, the universe itself has created its own detection tool, millisecond pulsars -- the rapidly spinning, super-dense remains of massive stars that have exploded as supernovas. These ultra-stable stars are nature’s most precise celestial clocks, appearing to “tick” every time their beamed emissions sweep past the Earth like a lighthouse beacon. Gravitational waves may be detected in the small but perceptible fluctuations -- a few tens of nanoseconds over five or more years—they cause in the measured arrival times at Earth of radio pulses from these millisecond pulsars.
NANOGrav was founded in 2007 and at the time consisted of 17 members in the United States and Canada. It has since grown to 55 scientists and students at 15 institutions. The NANOGrav PFC will provide funding for 23 senior personnel, 6 postdoctoral researchers, 10 graduate students, and 25 undergraduate students distributed across 11 institutions.
Xavier Siemens, a physicist at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, is the principal investigator for the project and will serve as director of the center. Maura McLaughlin, an astronomer at West Virginia University, will serve as co-director.
The NSF currently supports nine other PFCs, which range in research areas from theoretical biological physics and the physics of living cells to quantum information and nuclear astrophysics. By bringing together astronomers and physicists from across the United States and Canada to search for the telltale signature of gravitational waves buried in the incredibly steady ticking of distant pulsars, NANOGrav is advancing the PFC mission to "foster research at the intellectual frontiers of physics” and to “enable transformational advances in the most promising research areas.”
“NANOGrav is now poised to detect low-frequency gravitational waves,” Siemens said. “This Center will ensure that researchers have the resources necessary to explore one of the most exciting frontiers in all of physics and astronomy.”
This research makes use of the unique capabilities and sensitivity of the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory’s Green Bank Telescope. The GBT is located in the National Radio Quiet Zone, which protects the incredibly sensitive telescope from unwanted radio interference, enabling it to study pulsars and other astronomical objects. Arecibo is the largest single dish radio telescope in the world today.
“NANOGrav is fortunate to have access to the two most sensitive telescopes in the world for this groundbreaking research”, McLaughlin said. “Furthermore, as many of our observations are performed by students, the telescopes are serving a vital role in creating a pipeline for science and technology fields.”
The research performed by the PFC will be distributed among the participating institutions and members of NANOGrav. The personnel funded by the NANOGrav PFC include:
California Institute of Technology Curt Cutler Joseph Lazio Walid Majid Michele Vallisneri
Cornell University James Cordes Rachel Bean Adam Brazier Shamibrata Chatterjee Franklin and Marshall College Andrea Lommen Fronefield Crawford Lafayette College David Nice
Montana State University Neil Cornish
Universities Space Research Association and NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center Zaven Arzoumanian
National Radio Astronomy Observatory Paul Demorest Scott Ransom
Oberlin College Daniel Stinebring University of Texas at Brownsville Fredrick Jenet Joseph Romano
University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee David Kaplan Xavier Siemens West Virginia University Duncan Lorimer Maura McLaughlin Sean McWilliams
They collaborate closely with Ingrid Stairs at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada, and Victoria Kaspi at McGill University in Montreal, Canada.
Evelyn Boswell, (406) 994-5135 or email@example.com