The many effects of carnivores on their prey and their implications for trophic cascades, and ecosystem structure and function
John Jr Winnie, Scott Creel
Despite some controversy, a wide range of research across multiple taxa have established that carnivores strongly influence prey population dynamics both through direct offtake and indirect risk effects. Because of these powerful top-down effects carnivores can influence ecosystems across multiple trophic levels. Here we discuss research addressing carnivore direct- and indirect effects on prey, and how these effects can influence overall ecosystem structure and function.
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