Structure-Based Mechanism for Oxidative Decarboxylation Reactions Mediated by Amino Acids and Heme Propionates in Coproheme Decarboxylase (HemQ)
Arianna I. Celis, George H. Gauss, Bennett R. Streit, Krista Shisler, Garrett C. Moraski, Kenton R. Rodgers, Gudrun S. Lukat-Rodgers, John W. Peters, Jennifer L. DuBois
Journal of the American Chemical Society
Coproheme decarboxylase catalyzes two sequential oxidative decarboxylations with H2O2 as the oxidant, coproheme III as substrate and cofactor, and heme b as the product. Each reaction breaks a C—C bond and results in net loss of hydride, via steps that are not clear. Solution and solid-state structural characterization of the protein in complex with a substrate analog revealed a highly unconventional H2O2-activating distal environment with the reactive propionic acids (2 and 4) on the opposite side of the porphyrin plane. This suggested that, in contrast to direct C—H bond cleavage catalyzed by a high-valent iron intermediate, the coproheme oxidations must occur through mediating amino acid residues. A tyrosine that hydrogen bonds to propionate 2 in a position analogous to the substrate in ascorbate peroxidase is essential for both decarboxylations, while a lysine that salt bridges to propionate 4 is required solely for the second. A mechanism is proposed in which propionate 2 relays an oxidizing equivalent from a coproheme compound I intermediate to the reactive deprotonated tyrosine, forming Tyr•. This residue then abstracts a net hydrogen atom (H•) from propionate 2, followed by migration of the unpaired propionyl electron to the coproheme iron to yield the ferric harderoheme and CO2 products. A similar pathway is proposed for decarboxylation of propionate 4, but with a lysine residue as an essential proton shuttle. The proposed reaction suggests an extended relay of heme-mediated e–/H+ transfers and a novel route for the conversion of carboxylic acids to alkenes.
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