Constitutive redox and phosphoproteome changes in multiple herbicide resistant Avena fatua L. are similar to those of systemic acquired resistance and systemic acquired acclimation
Erin E. Burns, Barbara K. Keith, Mohammed Y. Refai, Brian Bothner, William E. Dyer
Journal of Plant Physiology
Plants are routinely confronted with numerous biotic and abiotic stressors, and in response have evolved highly effective strategies of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and systemic acquired acclimation (SAA), respectively. A much more evolutionarily recent abiotic stress is the application of herbicides to control weedy plants, and their intensive use has selected for resistant weed populations that cause substantial crop yield losses and increase production costs. Non-target site resistance (NTSR) to herbicides is rapidly increasing worldwide and is associated with alterations in generalized stress defense networks. This work investigated protein post-translational modifications associated with NTSR in multiple herbicide resistant (MHR) Avena fatua, and their commonalities with those of SAR and SAA. We used proteomic, biochemical, and immunological approaches to compare constitutive protein profiles in MHR and herbicide susceptible (HS) A. fatua populations. Phosphoproteome and redox proteome surveys showed that post-translational modifications of proteins with functions in core cellular processes were reduced in MHR plants, while those involved in xenobiotic and stress response, reactive oxygen species detoxification and redox maintenance, heat shock response, and intracellular signaling were elevated in MHR as compared to HS plants. More specifically, MHR plants contained constitutively elevated levels of three protein kinases including the lectin S-receptor-like serine/threonine-protein kinase LecRK2, a well-characterized component of SAR. Analyses of superoxide dismutase enzyme activity and protein levels did not reveal constitutive differences between MHR and HS plants. The overall results support the idea that herbicide stress is perceived similarly to other abiotic stresses, and that A. fatua NTSR shares analogous features with SAR and SAA. We speculate that MHR A. fatua's previous exposure to sublethal herbicide doses, as well as earlier evolution under a diversity of abiotic and biotic stressors, has led to a heightened state of stress preparedness that includes NTSR to a number of unrelated herbicides.
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