Coenzyme M biosynthesis in bacteria involves phosphate elimination by a functionally distinct member of the aspartase/fumarase superfamily
Sarah E. Partovi, Florence Mus, Andrew E. Gutknecht, Hunter A. Martinez, Brian P. Tripet, Bernd Markus Lange, Jennifer L. DuBois, John W. Peters
The Journal of Biological Chemistry
For nearly 30 years, coenzyme M (CoM) was assumed to be present solely in methanogenic archaea. In the late 1990s, CoM was reported to play a role in bacterial propene metabolism, but no biosynthetic pathway for CoM has yet been identified in bacteria. Here, using bioinformatics and proteomic approaches in the metabolically versatile bacterium Xanthobacter autotrophicus Py2, we identified four putative CoM biosynthetic enzymes encoded by xcbB1, C1, D1, and E1 genes. Only XcbB1 was homologous to a known CoM biosynthetic enzyme (ComA), indicating that CoM biosynthesis in bacteria involves enzymes different from those in archaea. We verified that the ComA homolog produces phosphosulfolactate from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), demonstrating that bacterial CoM biosynthesis is initiated similarly to the PEP-dependent methanogenic archaeal pathway. The bioinformatics analysis revealed that XcbC1 and D1 are members of the aspartase/fumarase superfamily (AFS) and that XcbE1 is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-containing enzyme with homology to D-cysteine desulfhydrases. Known AFS members catalyze beta-elimination reactions of succinyl-containing substrates, yielding fumarate as the common unsaturated elimination product. Unexpectedly, we found that XcbC1 catalyzes beta-elimination on phosphosulfolactate, yielding inorganic phosphate and a novel metabolite, sulfoacrylic acid. Phosphate-releasing beta-elimination reactions are unprecedented among the AFS, indicating that XcbC1 is an unusual phosphatase. Direct demonstration of phosphosulfolactate synthase activity for XcbB1 and phosphate beta-elimination activity for XcbC1 strengthened their hypothetical assignment to a CoM biosynthetic pathway and suggested functions also for XcbD1 and E1. Our results represent a critical first step toward elucidating the CoM pathway in bacteria.
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