Effects of the Canopy and Flux Tube Anchoring on Evaporation Flow of a Solar Flare
John Unverferth, Dana Longcope
Spectroscopic observations of flare ribbons typically show chromospheric evaporation flows, which are subsonic for their high temperatures. This contrasts with many numerical simulations where evaporation is typically supersonic. These simulations typically assume flow along a flux tube with a uniform cross-sectional area. A simple model of the magnetic canopy, however, includes many regions of low magnetic field strength, where flux tubes achieve local maxima in their cross-sectional area. These are analgous to a chamber in a flow tube. We find that one-third of all field lines in a model have some form of chamber through which evaporation flow must pass. Using a one-dimensional isothermal hydrodynamic code, we simulated supersonic flow through an assortment of chambers and found that a subset of solutions exhibit a stationary standing shock within the chamber. These shocked solutions have slower and denser upflows than a flow through a uniform tube would. We use our solution to construct synthetic spectral lines and find that the shocked solutions show higher emission and lower Doppler shifts. When these synthetic lines are combined into an ensemble representing a single canopy cell, the composite line appears slower, even subsonic, than expected due to the outsized contribution from shocked solutions.
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