Effects of Defects on Band Structure and Excitons in WS2 Revealed by Nanoscale Photoemission Spectroscopy
Christoph Kastl, Roland J. Koch, Christopher T. Chen, Johanna Eichhorn, Soren Ulstrup, Aaron Bostwick, Chris Jozwiak, Tevye R. Kuykendall, Nicholas Borys, Francesca M. Toma, Shaul Aloni, Alexander Weber-Bargioni, Eli Rotenberg, Adam M. Schwartzberg
Two-dimensional materials with engineered composition and structure will provide designer materials beyond conventional semiconductors. However, the potentials of defect engineering remain largely untapped, because it hinges on a precise understanding of electronic structure and excitonic properties, which are not yet predictable by theory alone. Here, we utilize correlative, nanoscale photoemission spectroscopy to visualize how local introduction of defects modifies electronic and excitonic properties of two-dimensional materials at the nanoscale. As a model system, we study chemical vapor deposition grown monolayer WS2, a prototypical, direct gap, two-dimensional semiconductor. By cross-correlating nanoscale angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, core level spectroscopy, and photoluminescence, we unravel how local variations in defect density influence electronic structure, lateral band alignment, and excitonic phenomena in synthetic WS2 monolayers.
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