Montana's adoption of PBE supports the Educational Goals and Duties outlined in Article X, Section 1 (1) of Montana's Constitution promoting the establishment of "a system of education which will develop the full educational potential of each person".

In 2019, during the 65th Legislative Session, the Montana Legislature passed the HB 351: Transformational Learning to foster "a flexible system of student centered learning" supporting each student's full academic potential by addressing their strengths, needs, and interests; focusing on proficiency; and providing students with greater choice in their educational process. 

Infusing PBE into the state's educational system was made a priority during the 66th Legislative Session (2021) under HB 2 by supporting and strengthening the adoption and implemention of PBE by MSU's teacher preparation program. 

In 2023, Senate Bill 8 revised transformational learning program laws with clearer definitions for "proficiency" and "proficiency-based education". Additionally, Chapter 55 Accreditation Rules of Montana (ARM 10.55.602) adopted definition language for "personalized learning" (31), "proficiency-based learning" (34), and "proficient" (35).