PBE is an approach to curriculm design, instruction, and assessment practices intended to improve learning outcomes. Unlike instructional approaches based on the amount of time students work on academically related tasks (referred to as 'seat time'), PBE is rooted in students acquiring specific competencies, which make up curricular standards. In this way, assessments play a key role in the learning process as the evidence of mastery (metrics) and means by which students advance. Given this larger role, proficiency scales (or performance scales) are often used by teachers to plan lessons and develop assessments.

Proficiency and Performance Scales

Mastery Learning

Competency-Based Education

Standards-Based Grading