Research Interests

  • Jihad in Africa
  • Colonialism and Post-Colonialism in Africa
  • Universal Rights
  • Modern Europe


  • Ph.D., European History, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 
    • Focus Area: French colonialism/Africa
  • M.A., European History, University California at Santa Cruz, CA
  • B.A., Political Science - International Relations, University California at Los Angeles, CA

Select Publications

  • “Neo-imperialism: the question of Africa,” June 20, 2014, Publication de la Faculté des Lettres et des Sciences Humaines Ben M’sik (Casablanca: Hassan II University Press, 2015)
  • “Seeking Salaam and Little Ethiopia of the Pacific Northwest” (Review) Pacific Northwest Quarterly Volume 105, No. 3 (Summer 2014) 149-150
  • “Free Boy: A True Story of Master and Slave” (Review) Pacific Northwest Quarterly Volume 104, No. 3 (Summer, 2013) 151-152
  • “Juan de Fuca’s Strait” (Review) Pacific Northwest Quarterly Volume 103, No. 4 (Fall, 2012) 192-193