Characteristics
Morphology
A gram positive rod that is anaerobic, motile, capable of producing spores, and produces many different toxins.
Growth Conditions
Defined amino acid growth medium
Health Hazards
Host Range
Humans and Animals
Modes of Transmission
Food-borne illness acquired by ingestion.
Signs and Symptoms 
Food poisoning: Watery diarrhea, nausea, and abdominal pain. Gas Gangrene; breakdown of muscle tissue. Severe pain, edema, tenderness and pallor, followed by discoloration and hemorrhagic bullae, and production of gas at the site of wound.
Infectious Dose
Food poisoning: 100 million
Incubation Period 
Food poisoning: 8 to 24 hours Gas Gangrene: 1 to 4 days
Medical Precautions/Treatment
Prophylaxis None.
Vaccines None.
Treatment
Food poisoning: Self-limiting disease. Therapy is mainly supportive.
Gas Gangrene: removal of all devitalized tissue in conjunction with antibiotic therapy with a combination of penicillin and clindamycin or tetracycline.
Surveillance
Clinical symptoms.
MSU Requirements Report any exposures.
Laboratory Hazards
Laboratory Acquired Infections (LAIs)
None have been reported to date.
 Sources
Feces, food, blood, bowel contents or tissue.
Supplemental References
BMBL:5th Edition http://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5/BMBL.pdf
Canadian MSDS
http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/index-eng.php
CDC
Containment Requirements
BSL2 For all procedures involving known or potentially infected cultures.
ABSL2 For all procedures utilizing infected animals.
Spill Procedures
Small Notify others working in the lab. Remove and don new PPE. Cover area of the spill with absorbent material and add 10 % Bleach. Allow 30 minutes hour of contact time. After 30 minutes and then cleanup and dispose of materials.
Large For assistance, contact MSU's Biosafety Officer: Ryan Bartlett, ryan.bartlett@montana.edu, (406) 994-6821
or Safety and Risk Management (406-994- 2711).
Exposure Procedures
Mucous membrane
Flush eyes, mouth or nose for 5 minutes at eyewash station.
Other Exposures
Wash area with soap and water for 5 minutes.
Reporting
Immediately report incident to supervisor, complete a first report of injury report, and submit to Safety and Risk Management.
Medical Follow-up
During business hours: Bridger Occupational Health 3406 Laramie Drive. Weekdays 8am -6pm.  Weekends 9am-5pm
After business hours: Bozeman Deaconess Hospital Emergency Room 915 Highland Blvd Bozeman, MT
Viability
Disinfection
Spores are fairly resistant; moderate susceptiblity to 10 % Bleach; susceptible to high level disinfectants (>2 % gluteraldehyde) with prolonged contact time.
Inactivation
Spores are inactivated by moist heat (15 minutes at 121oC) and dry heat (1 hour at 160-170oC).
Survival Outside Host
Spores can survive for long periods outside of host.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Minimum PPE Requirements
At minimum, gloves, closed toed shoes, lab coat, and appropriate face and eye protection prior to working with C. perfringens. Additional PPE may be required depending on lab specific SOPs.
Additional Precautions
Wash hands with soap and water after removing gloves. Alcohol hand cleansers will not effectively eliminate the spores.