Characteristics
 Morphology
Member of the Retroviridae family, genus Lentivirus/. Enveloped virus, single stranded, positive-sense RNA virus.
Growth Conditions
Cell culture
Health Hazards
Host Range Humans
Modes of Transmission
Exposure of the virus to oral rectal, or vaginal mucosa during sexual activity. Transfusion of contaminated blood products, using contaminated equipment during injection drug use. Mother to infant during pregnancy.
Signs and Symptoms 
AIDS is characterized by symptoms and infections caused by the breakdown of the immune system due to HIV infection.  Due to immunodeficiency, patients succumb to various fungi, parasites, bacteria, and/or viruses and are prone to certain tumors.
Infectious Dose
Unknown.
Incubation Period 
Ranges from less than 1 year to 15 years or longer.
Medical Precautions/Treatment
Prophylaxis Antiretroviral agents: NRTIs, NtRTIs, NNRTIs, PIs and fusion inhibitors.
Vaccines None available.
Treatment
Antiretroviral agents: NRTIs, NtRTIs, NNRTIs, PIs and fusion inhibitors.
Surveillance Monitor for symptoms.
MSU Requirements Report any exposures.
Laboratory Hazards
Laboratory Acquired Infections (LAIs)
As of 2001, there have been a total of 57 cases of documented occupationally acquired HIV among U.S. health care workers.
 Sources
Blood, semen, vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, peritoneal fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, breast milk, and infected human tissues.
Supplemental References
BMBL:5th Edition
http://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5/BMBL.pdf
Canadian MSDS:
http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/index-eng.php
CDC
Containment Requirements
BSL2 For all procedures involving known or potentially infected cultures.
ABSL2 For all procedures utilizing infected animals.
Spill Procedures
Small
Notify others working in the lab. Remove and don new PPE. Cover area of the spill with absorbent material and add 10 % Bleach. Allow 30 minutes hour of contact time. After 30 minutes and then cleanup and dispose of materials.
Large
For assistance, contact MSU's Biosafety Officer: Ryan Bartlett, ryan.bartlett@montana.edu, (406) 994-6733
or Safety and Risk Management (406-994- 2711).
Exposure Procedures
Mucous membrane
Flush eyes, mouth or nose for 5 minutes at eyewash station.
Other Exposures
Wash area with soap and water for 5 minutes.
Reporting
Immediately report incident to supervisor, complete a first report of injury report, and submit to Safety and Risk Management.
Medical Follow-up
During business hours: Bridger Occupational Health 3406 Laramie Drive. Weekdays 8am -6pm.  Weekends 9am-5pm
After business hours: Bozeman Deaconess Hospital Emergency Room 915 Highland Blvd Bozeman, MT
Viability
Disinfection Susceptible to 10 % Bleach, 70 % ethanol
Inactivation Inactivated by dry heat (1 hour at 160-170oC).
Survival Outside Host Unknown
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Minimum PPE Requirements
At minimum, gloves, closed toed shoes, lab coat, and appropriate face and eye protection prior to working with HIV.  Additional PPE may be required depending on lab specific SOPs
Additional Precautions
None.