General Areas of Research

Behavioral ecology, population biology, conservation, behavioral endocrinology, evolutionary ecology. My  research is based on field studies, generally using observational methods, and often following known individuals. Much of the work in my lab has involved the integration of behavioral and demographic data from the field with physiological and genetic data from the lab. My lab is equipped for extraction and enzyme immunoassays of steroid and peptide hormones, microhistology and other assays.

My current research mainly examines the costs of antipredator responses by prey species. Research with many species has shown that direct killing constitutes only a fraction of the total effect of predators on their prey. We have recently examined the responses of elk to variation in the risk of predation by wolves, including changes in behavior, group size, habitat selection, feeding ecology, and spatial distributions. We related these responses to nutrition, physiology, demography and population dynamics. This work won the Carl Gustav Bernhard Medal from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.


Our primary field research is now with the Zambian Carnivore Programme, examining carnivore conservation, ecology and behavior in three ecosystems (Liuwa, South Luangwa and Kafue National Parks), with several species of predators and prey. This work aims to  provide basic data (population size, survival rates and the factors that affect them) for the conservation and management of predators and prey. In this work, we are studying African wild dogs, lions, spotted hyenas, cheetahs and leopards, together with their primary prey, which varies among species and ecosystems, but notably includes wildebeest, impala, oribi and zebra.


We address these questions with a variety of methods, including behavioral observations (old fashioned but still irreplaceable), demographic & ecological monitoring, ground and aerial censuses, camera trapping, GPS and VHF radiotelemetry, enzyme immunoassay of fecal steroid metabolites to measure pregnancy rates and glucocorticoid stress responses, measurements of abiotic factors such as weather and soil nutrients, and assessments of diet quality by chemical, radioisotope and microhistological methods.


Vigilant ImpalaWild DogBusanga BrotherSpotted Hyena CubLion CubKuduToyota Hilux FlambeLiuwa LionessDr. Wigganson Matandiko

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