In 1825, our buffalo nations ancestors came together on the Yellowstone River to lift the pipe and acknowledge the reliance of many nations on the buffalo herds of our region. Since 2014, that treaty has been re-invigorated amongst nations who are returning to buffalo. Treaty, done Indigenously, is an act of self-determination fundamental to Indigenous food sovereignty. The Buffalo Treaty is an example of Indigenous treaty with between the buffalo and the people (LittleBear, 2021; Crosschild et al., 2021), that aims to put the pieces of our web of life and culture back together. The Buffalo Treaty begins with a personal return to the buffalo, the connection of our family, and then moving forward in a human way together. Treaty done Indigenously is an annual renewal of relationship and in this case, it is the pipe that becomes the conduit of communication in the web of relations in which our intentions are made. The Buffalo Treaty allows for allies, and liked-minded friends, relatives, and institutions, to join in the return to the buffalo. This is how we bring everyone with us in the work.

The Buffalo: a Treaty of Cooperation, Renewal, and Restoration (2014) includes articles of both education and research that guide our work for intertribal food sovereignty.

The Buffalo - A Treaty of Cooperation, Renewal and Restoration