Suggested Readings

A Higher Form of Killing

Harris, R. and J. Paxman. 1982. A higher form of killing: the secret story of chemical and biological warfare. Hill and Wang. New York.

Review: "This is an absorbing and unsettling history, an exhaustive exploration of a little-known but potentially apocalyptic aspect of warfare, the whole thing carrying the punch of Armageddon. It reminds us that the world could end not with a nuclear bang but in whimpers of fevered agony." --Henry Kisor, Chicago Sun-Times

Mosquitoes, Malaria & Man

Harrison, G. A. Mosquitoes, malaria & man: a history of the hostilities since 1880. E. P. Dutton, New York.


Forces of Change

Hobhouse, H. 1989. Forces of change: an unorthodox history. Arcade. New York.

From the Book Jacket: "Henry Hobhouse argues provocatively, and most convincingly, that modern history has been shaped less by the actions of human beings than by three natural forces: population growth, food supply, and disease."


Humphreys, M. 2001. Malaria:  Poverty, race, and public health in the United States. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, MD.


Six-legged soldiers

Lockwood, J. A. 2009. Six-legged soldiers: using insects as weapons of war. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Review: "Jeff Lockwood's examination of the insidious use of insects during times of war shows how vulnerable we may really be. This book is a must-read for biologists and historians alike." --Gene Kritsky

The Path Between The Seas

McCulloch, D. 1999. Path between the seas: the creation of the Panama Canal, 1870-1914. Simon and Schuster, New York.


Plagues and Peoples

McNeill, W. H. 1976. Plagues and peoples. Anchor/Doubleday, New York.

Reviews: "This is one of the most novel and challenging new historical concepts in recent times. I could hardly put it down. It is designed to make a stir and it will!" --Harrison E. Salisbury

"In Plagues and Peoples, a fascinating exercise in historical speculation, William H. McNeill argues convincingly for the extraordinary impact of disease on human history." --The Progressive

American Pests

McWilliams, J. E. 2008. American pests: the losing war on insects from colonial times to DDT. Columbia University Press. New York.


The Natural History of Flies

Oldroyd, H. 1964. The natural history of flies. Norton. New York.

From the Book Jacket: "Flies are the most formidable of Man's insect enemies. Tsetse-flies by themselves have been able to delay the development of much of Africa by making it impossible to keep horses and cattle there. Mosquitoes have caused enormous human suffering all over the world. The House Fly and many others persecute Man and his domestic animals, carry diseases and destroy crops.

Yet these flies that affect Man are only a small proportion of eighty or even perhaps one hundred thousand different species, which constitute the Order Diptera. The author discusses these in sixteen groups of increasingly advanced evolution....";