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Gram positive rods, have filaments that are non-acid-fast and non-motile, most species are facultative anaerobes.
Actinomycosis, gastrointestinal infections, gingivitis
Health Hazards
Host Range
Humans and animals.
Modes of Transmission
ingestion, exposure to mucous membranes, exposure to open wounds.
Signs and Symptoms
Abscess in area of exposure, redness and swelling in area of exposure, stomach pain.
Infectious Dose
Incubation Period
Mucous membranes: days to months; colonization of other areas may be days to years. 
Medical Precautions / Treatment
None available.
None available.
Penicillin is usually effective, but amoxicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, doxycycline, and tetracycline are alternative antimicrobial choices. Tetracyclines are not recommended for pregnant women or children younger than 8 years of age. Surgical drainage often is a necessary adjunct to medical management and may allow for a shorter duration of antimicrobial treatment
Monitor for symptoms.
MSU Requirements
Report any exposure.
Laboratory Hazards
Laboratory Acquired Infections (LAIs)
Cases have been reported.
Samples from oral cavity (dental plaque, saliva, mucosal surfaces), blood, tissue biopsy specimens, aspirates. Cultures, frozen stocks, other samples described in IBC protocol.
Supplemental References
Canadian MSDS
NIH Guidelines
Risk Group & Containment Requirements
Risk Group 2

Agents that are associated with human disease which is rarely serious and for which preventive or therapeutic interventions are often available.

For all procedures involving suspected or known infectious specimen or cultures.
For all procedures utilizing infected animals.
Spill Procedures
Notify others working in the lab. Remove PPE and don new PPE. Cover area of the spill with absorbent material and add fresh 1:10 bleach:water. Allow 20 munutes (or as directed) of contact time. After 20 minutes, cleanup and dispose of materials.
  • Immediately notify all personnel in the lab and clear all personnel from the area. Remove any contaminated PPE/clothing and leave the lab. 
  • Secure the area by locking doors, posting signage and guarding the area to keep people out of the space. 
For assistance, contact MSU's Biosafety Officer (406-994-6733) or Safety and Risk Management (406-994-2711).
Exposure Procedures
Mucous membrane
Flush eyes, mouth, or nose for 5 minutes at eyewash station.
Other Exposures
Wash area with soap and water for 5 minutes.
Immediately report incident to supervisor, complete a First Report of Injury form, and submit to Safety and Risk Management.
Medical Follow-up
During business hours: Bridger Occupational Health 3406 Laramie Drive. Weekdays 8am -6pm.  Weekends 9am-5pm
After business hours: Bozeman Deaconess Hospital Emergency Room 915 Highland Blvd Bozeman, MT
Susceptible to 1:10 bleach:water, 70% ethanol, 2% glutaraldehyde and peracetic acid (0.001%-0.2%)
Inactivated by moist heat (15 minutes at 121°C) and dry heat (1 hour at 160-170°C).
Survival Outside Host
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Minimum PPE Requirements
Lab coat, disposable gloves, safety glasses, closed toed shoes, long pants
Additional Precautions
Additioanl PPE may be required depending on lab specific SOPs and IBC Protocol.