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A gram-positive rod that is anaerobic, motile, capable of producing spores, and produces many different toxins.

Food poisoning (Type C), Gas Gangrene, cellulitis, enteritis necroticans and CNS diseases.


Yes; Type A foodborne disease and Type C infections can be transmitted from animals to humans.

Health Hazards
Host Range
Humans and animals.
Modes of Transmission
Food-borne illness acquired by ingestion.
Signs and Symptoms 
Food poisoning: Watery diarrhea, nausea, and abdominal pain. Gas Gangrene; breakdown of muscle tissue. Severe pain, edema, tenderness, and pallor, followed by discoloration and hemorrhagic bullae, and production of gas at the site of wound.
Infectious Dose
Food poisoning: 100 million
Incubation Period 
Food poisoning: 8 to 24 hours Gas Gangrene: 1 to 4 days
Medical Precautions/Treatment
Prophylaxis None available.
Vaccines None available.

Food poisoning: Self-limiting disease. Therapy is mainly supportive.

Gas Gangrene: removal of all devitalized tissue in conjunction with antibiotic therapy with a combination of penicillin and clindamycin or tetracycline.
Clinical symptoms.
MSU Requirements Report any exposures
Laboratory Hazards
Laboratory Acquired Infections (LAIs) None of been reported to date.
Feces, food, blood, bowel contents or tissue. Cultures, frozen stocks, other samples described in IBC protocol.
Supplemental References
Canadian MSDS:
NIH Guidelines
Risk Group & Containment Requirements
Risk Group 2

Agents that are associated with human disease which is rarely serious and for which preventive or therapeutic interventions are often available.

For all procedures involving suspected or known infectious specimen or cultures.
For all procedures utilizing infected animals.
Spill Procedures
Notify others working in the lab. Remove PPE and don new PPE. Cover area of the spill with absorbent material and add fresh 1:10 bleach:water. Allow 20 munutes (or as directed) of contact time. After 20 minutes, cleanup and dispose of materials.
  • Immediately notify all personnel in the lab and clear all personnel from the area. Remove any contaminated PPE/clothing and leave the lab. 
  • Secure the area by locking doors, posting signage and guarding the area to keep people out of the space. 
For assistance, contact MSU's Biosafety Officer (406-994-6733) or Safety and Risk Management (406-994-2711).
Exposure Procedures
Mucous membrane
Flush eyes, mouth, or nose for 5 minutes at eyewash station.
Other Exposures
Wash area with soap and water for 5 minutes.
Immediately report incident to supervisor, complete a First Report of Injury form, and submit to Safety and Risk Management.
Medical Follow-up
During business hours: Bridger Occupational Health 3406 Laramie Drive. Weekdays 8am -6pm.  Weekends 9am-5pm
After business hours: Bozeman Deaconess Hospital Emergency Room 915 Highland Blvd Bozeman, MT
Spores are fairly resistant; moderate susceptibility to 1:10 bleach:water; susceptible to high level disinfectants (>2 % gluteraldehyde) with prolonged contact time, accelerated hydrogen peroxide
Spores are inactivated by moist heat (15 minutes at 121 C) and dry heat (1 hour at 160-170 C).
Survival Outside Host
Spores can survive for long periods outside of host.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Minimum PPE Requirements
Lab coat, disposable gloves, safety glasses, closed toed shoes, long pants
Additional Precautions
Additioanl PPE may be required depending on lab specific SOPs and IBC Protocol.