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Positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus.
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a specific type of non-polio enterovirus. It was first identified in California in 1962 but since then was only rarely reported in the United States compared to other non-polio enteroviruses. In the fall of 2014, EV-D68 was associated with a nationwide outbreak of severe respiratory illness in the United States and Canada. In some patients, EV-D68-associated illness was severe enough to require intensive care unit (ICU) admission.
Health Hazards
Host Range
Modes of Transmission 
Direct contact with infected secretions or mucous membranes.
Signs and Symptoms 
Respiratory illness: Mild symptoms may include runny nose, sneezing, cough and body and muscle aches. Severe symptoms may include wheezing and difficulty breathing.
Infectious Dose unknown
Incubation Period 
3 to 6 days.
Medical Precautions/Treatment
Prophylaxis None available.
Vaccines None available. 
No specific treatment for people with respiratory illness.
Surveillance Monitor for symptoms.
MSU Requirements  Report any exposures.
Laboratory Hazards
Laboratory Acquired Infections (LAIs)
Virus is shed from saliva. Cultures, frozen stocks, other samples described in IBC protocol.
Supplemental References
Canadian MSDS:
NIH Guidelines
Risk Group & Containment Requirements
Risk Group 2

Agents that are associated with human disease which is rarely serious and for which preventive or therapeutic interventions are often available.

For all procedures involving suspected or known infectious specimen or cultures.
For all procedures utilizing infected animals.
Spill Procedures
Notify others working in the lab. Remove PPE and don new PPE. Cover area of the spill with absorbent material and add fresh 1:10 bleach:water. Allow 20 munutes (or as directed) of contact time. After 20 minutes, cleanup and dispose of materials.
  • Immediately notify all personnel in the lab and clear all personnel from the area. Remove any contaminated PPE/clothing and leave the lab. 
  • Secure the area by locking doors, posting signage and guarding the area to keep people out of the space. 
For assistance, contact MSU's Biosafety Officer (406-994-6733) or Safety and Risk Management (406-994-2711).
Exposure Procedures
Mucous membrane
Flush eyes, mouth, or nose for 5 minutes at eyewash station.
Other Exposures
Wash area with soap and water for 5 minutes.
Immediately report incident to supervisor, complete a First Report of Injury form, and submit to Safety and Risk Management.
Medical Follow-up
During business hours: Bridger Occupational Health 3406 Laramie Drive. Weekdays 8am -6pm.  Weekends 9am-5pm
After business hours: Bozeman Deaconess Hospital Emergency Room 915 Highland Blvd Bozeman, MT
Susceptible to 1:10 bleach:water, 70 % ethanol, accelerated hydrogen peroxide
Inactivated moist heat (121°C for 30 min) and dry heat (1 hour at 160-170 C).
Survival Outside Host
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Minimum PPE Requirements
Lab coat, disposable gloves, safety glasses, closed toed shoes, long pants
Additional Precautions
Additioanl PPE may be required depending on lab specific SOPs and IBC Protocol.