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Single celled amoeba found in warm freshwater and in soil, feeds on Gram-negative bacteria.

Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis.
Health Hazards
Host Range
Humans, animals. 
Modes of Transmission

Contact with mucous membranes, accidental ingestion, skin puncture

Signs and Symptoms

Sore throat, blocked nasal passages, fever, vomiting, stiff neck, confusion, abnormal behavior.

Infectious Dose
Incubation Period 
1-7 days.
Medical Precautions/Treatment
None available.
None available.
Susceptible to amphotericin B, which is often used in combination with rifampin, orindazol, miconazol, sulisoxazole, or chloramphenicol. Miltefosine and voriconazole has also been found to be effective against infection.
Monitor for symptoms
MSU Requirements
Report any exposures
Laboratory Hazards
Laboratory Acquired Infections (LAIs)
None reported.
Water, soil, cerebral spinal fluid, brain and lung tissue, skin, and corneal biopsy material. Cultures, frozen stocks, other samples described in IBC protocol.
Supplemental References 
Canadian MSDS:
NIH Guidelines
Risk Group & Containment Requirements
Risk Group 1

Agents that are associated with human disease which is rarely serious and for which preventive or therapeutic interventions are often available.

For all procedures involving suspected or known infectious specimen or cultures.
For all procedures utilizing infected animals.
Spill Procedures
Notify others working in the lab. Remove PPE and don new PPE. Cover area of the spill with absorbent material and add fresh 1:10 bleach:water. Allow 20 munutes (or as directed) of contact time. After 20 minutes, cleanup and dispose of materials.
  • Immediately notify all personnel in the lab and clear all personnel from the area. Remove any contaminated PPE/clothing and leave the lab. 
  • Secure the area by locking doors, posting signage and guarding the area to keep people out of the space. 
For assistance, contact MSU's Biosafety Officer (406-994-6733) or Safety and Risk Management (406-994-2711).
Exposure Procedures
Mucous membrane
Flush eyes, mouth, or nose for 5 minutes at eyewash station.
Other Exposures
Wash area with soap and water for 5 minutes.
Immediately report incident to supervisor, complete a First Report of Injury form, and submit to Safety and Risk Management.
Medical Follow-up
During business hours: Bridger Occupational Health 3406 Laramie Drive. Weekdays 8am -6pm.  Weekends 9am-5pm
After business hours: Bozeman Deaconess Hospital Emergency Room 915 Highland Blvd Bozeman, MT
Susceptible to 1:10 bleach:water
Heating water to 50ºC for 5 minutes will kill all forms of the amoebae. Both amoeba and cysts can tolerate temperature of 65ºC for 1-3 minutes and temperatures below 20ºC inhibit reproduction. Degradation occurs when temperatures reach below 10ºC. Dehydration is lethal to N. fowleri.
Survival Outside Host
can survive in water at temperature up to 45ºC and at pH 4.6 - 9.5
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Minimum PPE Requirements
Lab coat, disposable gloves, safety glasses, closed toed shoes, long pants
Additional Precautions
Additioanl PPE may be required depending on lab specific SOPs and IBC Protocol.