Including serotypes: Typhi, Paratyphi, Enteriditis, Typhimurium and Choleraesuis

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Morphology Member of the Enterobacteriaceae family. Is a facultative anaerobe and is a gram negative motile rod shaped bacteria.

Gastroenteritis, bacteremia, enteric fever, and asymptomatic carriers.

Zoonosis Yes - contact with infected animals and feces.
Health Hazards
Host Range Humans and Animals.
Modes of Transmission  Contaminated food and water, contact with infected feces, infected animals or humans.
Signs and Symptoms  Gastroenteritis (food poisoning), fever, abdominal pain, myalgias, malaise, diarrhea, or constipation.
Infectious Dose 1000 to 100000
Incubation Period  Ranges from 5 to 72 hours depending on the incubation period.
Medical Precautions/Treatment
Prophylaxis None available
Vaccines Three vaccines (2 parenteral and 1 oral) are licensed for use in the US and should be considered for those working with serotype Typhi
Treatment Chloramphenicol, ciproflaxin, amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, trimethoprim-sulfonamid, cephalosporins and norfloxacin.
Surveillance Monitor for symptoms of infection
MSU Requirements  Report any exposures
Laboratory Hazards
Laboratory Acquired Infections (LAIs) 64 cases and 2 deaths were reported from 1979 to 2004.
 Sources Blood, urine, feces, food and environmental materials. Cultures, frozen stocks, other samples described in IBC protocol.
Supplemental References
Canadian MSDS:
NIH Guidelines
Risk Group & Containment Requirements
Risk Group 2

Agents that are associated with human disease which is rarely serious and for which preventive or therapeutic interventions are often available.

For all procedures involving suspected or known infectious specimen or cultures.
For all procedures utilizing infected animals.
Spill Procedures
Notify others working in the lab. Remove PPE and don new PPE. Cover area of the spill with absorbent material and add fresh 1:10 bleach:water. Allow 20 munutes (or as directed) of contact time. After 20 minutes, cleanup and dispose of materials.
  • Immediately notify all personnel in the lab and clear all personnel from the area. Remove any contaminated PPE/clothing and leave the lab. 
  • Secure the area by locking doors, posting signage and guarding the area to keep people out of the space. 
For assistance, contact MSU's Biosafety Officer (406-994-6733) or Safety and Risk Management (406-994-2711).
Exposure Procedures
Mucous membrane
Flush eyes, mouth, or nose for 5 minutes at eyewash station.
Other Exposures
Wash area with soap and water for 5 minutes.
Immediately report incident to supervisor, complete a First Report of Injury form, and submit to Safety and Risk Management.
Medical Follow-up
During business hours: Bridger Occupational Health 3406 Laramie Drive. Weekdays 8am -6pm.  Weekends 9am-5pm
After business hours: Bozeman Deaconess Hospital Emergency Room 915 Highland Blvd Bozeman, MT
Disinfection Susceptible to 1:10 bleach:water, 70 % ethanol and 2 % gluteraldehyde
Inactivation Inactivated by moist heat (15 minutes at 121° C) and dry heat (1 hour at 170° C).
Survival Outside Host Can survive in cattle slurry for 19-60 days, cattle manure for 48 days, soil for 231 days, and water for up to 152 days. Survive on fingertips for 80 minutes.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Minimum PPE Requirements
Lab coat, disposable gloves, safety glasses, closed toed shoes, long pants
Additional Precautions
Additioanl PPE may be required depending on lab specific SOPs and IBC Protocol.