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Morphology Of the genus Alphavirus, and a member of the Togaviridae family. Virions are spherical to pleomorphic (70 nm in diameter), consisting of an envelope and nucleocapsid. The non-segmented genome consists of a single molecule of linear positive-sense single-stranded RNA
Disease Epidemic polyarthritis and rash, Sindbis virus disease.
Zoonosis Yes, by mosquito bite. May be transmitted by ticks.


Health Hazards
Host Range Humans, mosquitos, and birds
Modes of Transmission  Transmitted by mosquito bite.
Signs and Symptoms  Sudden onset fever, headache, arthralgia, fatigue, and muscle pain.
Infectious Dose Unknown
Incubation Period  To 10 days.
Medical Precautions/Treatment
Prophylaxis None available
Vaccines None available 
Treatment No specific treatment; however, dioxane-based antiviral agents for treatment are under investigation.
Surveillance Monitor for symptoms.
MSU Requirements  Report any exposures.
Laboratory Hazards
Laboratory Acquired Infections (LAIs) None reported to date
 Sources Infected mosquitoes, skin lesions and blood or serum samples. Cultures, frozen stocks, other samples described in IBC protocol.
Supplemental References
Canadian MSDS:
NIH Guidelines
Risk Group & Containment Requirements
Risk Group 2

Agents that are associated with human disease which is rarely serious and for which preventive or therapeutic interventions are often available.

For all procedures involving suspected or known infectious specimen or cultures.
For all procedures utilizing infected animals.
Spill Procedures
Notify others working in the lab. Remove PPE and don new PPE. Cover area of the spill with absorbent material and add fresh 1:10 bleach:water. Allow 20 munutes (or as directed) of contact time. After 20 minutes, cleanup and dispose of materials.
  • Immediately notify all personnel in the lab and clear all personnel from the area. Remove any contaminated PPE/clothing and leave the lab. 
  • Secure the area by locking doors, posting signage and guarding the area to keep people out of the space. 
For assistance, contact MSU's Biosafety Officer (406-994-6733) or Safety and Risk Management (406-994-2711).
Exposure Procedures
Mucous membrane
Flush eyes, mouth, or nose for 5 minutes at eyewash station.
Other Exposures
Wash area with soap and water for 5 minutes.
Immediately report incident to supervisor, complete a First Report of Injury form, and submit to Safety and Risk Management.
Medical Follow-up
During business hours: Bridger Occupational Health 3406 Laramie Drive. Weekdays 8am -6pm.  Weekends 9am-5pm
After business hours: Bozeman Deaconess Hospital Emergency Room 915 Highland Blvd Bozeman, MT
Disinfection Susceptible to 1:10 bleach:water, 70 % ethanol
Inactivation Inactivated by moist heat (15 minutes at 121° C) and dry heat (1 hour at 170° C).
Survival Outside Host Survive in cell culture at low temperature and low pH. Can also survive in biological materials for long periods of time.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Minimum PPE Requirements
Lab coat, disposable gloves, safety glasses, closed toed shoes, long pants
Additional Precautions
Additioanl PPE may be required depending on lab specific SOPs and IBC Protocol.