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Morphology Aerotolerant, gram positive diplococci, lancet-shaped, occur in pairs, or short, tight chains.
Disease Pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis.

Possible, by bite wound or exposure to infected animals.

Health Hazards
Host Range Humans and Animals.
Modes of Transmission  Direct contact with aerosol droplets. Direct oral and mucous membrane contact. Indirectly through articles freshly soiled with respiratory discharges.
Signs and Symptoms  Shaking chills, chest pain, dyspnea, fever, productive cough, and sinusitis. Can cause middle ear infections. Can progress to pneumonia, bacteremia, meningitis.
Infectious Dose Unknown
Incubation Period  Generally 1-3 days
Medical Precautions/Treatment
Prophylaxis Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23)
Vaccines Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23). Vaccination is recommended for all children under 5 years of age, all adults over 65 years of age, and high risk individuals of any age, including individuals with underlying medical conditions such as HIV or sickle-cell disease.
Treatment Variable susceptibility to: penicillin, tetracycline, cefotaxime, levofloxacin, erythromycin, and flouroquinolines, moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin, telithromycin, vancomycin, linezolid.
Surveillance Monitor for symptoms of infection
MSU Requirements  Report any exposures
Laboratory Hazards
Laboratory Acquired Infections (LAIs) 78 documented cases since 1999
 Sources Sputum, blood, respiratory secretions, throat swabs, parenteral inoculation. Cultures, frozen stocks, other samples described in IBC protocol.
Supplemental References
Canadian MSDS:
NIH Guidelines
Risk Group & Containment Requirements
Risk Group 2

Agents that are associated with human disease which is rarely serious and for which preventive or therapeutic interventions are often available.

For all procedures involving suspected or known infectious specimen or cultures.
For all procedures utilizing infected animals.
Spill Procedures
Notify others working in the lab. Remove PPE and don new PPE. Cover area of the spill with absorbent material and add fresh 1:10 bleach:water. Allow 20 munutes (or as directed) of contact time. After 20 minutes, cleanup and dispose of materials.
  • Immediately notify all personnel in the lab and clear all personnel from the area. Remove any contaminated PPE/clothing and leave the lab. 
  • Secure the area by locking doors, posting signage and guarding the area to keep people out of the space. 
For assistance, contact MSU's Biosafety Officer (406-994-6733) or Safety and Risk Management (406-994-2711).
Exposure Procedures
Mucous membrane
Flush eyes, mouth, or nose for 5 minutes at eyewash station.
Other Exposures
Wash area with soap and water for 5 minutes.
Immediately report incident to supervisor, complete a First Report of Injury form, and submit to Safety and Risk Management.
Medical Follow-up
During business hours: Bridger Occupational Health 3406 Laramie Drive. Weekdays 8am -6pm.  Weekends 9am-5pm
After business hours: Bozeman Deaconess Hospital Emergency Room 915 Highland Blvd Bozeman, MT
Disinfection Susceptible to 1:10 bleach:water, 70 % ethanol and 2 % gluteraldehyde
Inactivation Inactivated by moist heat (15 minutes at 121° C) and dry heat (1 hour at 160-170° C).
Survival Outside Host Mouse carcasses – 180 to 270 days, sputum at room temperature survives 7 days, and gauze survives 2 to 15 days.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Minimum PPE Requirements
Lab coat, disposable gloves, safety glasses, closed toed shoes, long pants
Additional Precautions
Additioanl PPE may be required depending on lab specific SOPs and IBC Protocol.