Bacterial Adhesion and Biofilm Formation on Textured Breast Implant Shell Materials
Garth A. James, Laura Boegli, John Hancock, Lisa Bowersock, Albert Parker, Brian M. Kinney
Aesthetica Plastic Surgery
Background Bacterial biofilms have been implicated with breast implant complications including capsular contracture and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. The actual mechanisms for either are still under active investigation and are not clear. Due to their increased surface area, implants with textured surfaces may harbor greater biofilm loads than those with smooth surfaces. Methods Biofilm formation on the outer surface material was compared using implants with various surface areas and roughness, including Natrelle® (Smooth), SmoothSilk®/SilkSurface® (Silk), VelvetSurface ® (Velvet), Siltex®, and Biocell®. The roughness and surface area of each material were assessed using non-contact profilometry. Bacterial attachment (2 h) and biofilm formation (24 h) were evaluated for Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Ralstonia pickettii over nine independent experiments using a CDC biofilm reactor and viable plate counts (VPCs) as well as confocal scanning laser microscopy. VPCs of the textured implants were compared relative to the Smooth implant. Results Surface areas increased with roughness and were similar among the three least rough implants (Smooth, Silk, and Velvet) and among the roughest implants (Siltex and Biocell). Overall, VPC indicated there was significantly more bacterial attachment and biofilm formation on the Siltex and Biocell implants than the Silk or Velvet implants, although there were differences between species and time points. CSLM confirmed the formation of thicker biofilms on the implants with rougher surface textures. Conclusion This in vitro study confirmed that implant surfaces with rougher texture, resulting in more surface area, harbored greater biofilm loads than those with smoother surfaces.
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