# Statistics Program at MSU: 1971-1976

### Summary

This period corresponds to the term of MSU president Carl W. McIntosh (1970–1977).
The 1970 MSU Fall enrollment was 8187. The total college academic year expenses for
an undergraduate student in 1970 were $1,440 ($9,100 in 2017 dollars) for a Montana
resident and $2,110 ($13,300 in 2017 dollars) for a non-resident. Montana had 14 state-supported
institutions of higher education, more per capita than any other state in the union.
Shortly after McIntosh arrived, the state imposed budget reductions on the University.
Under the new Montana Constitution of 1972, the university was supervised by a mandated
Board of Regents (BOR) and an administrative officer, the Commissioner of Higher Education
(CHE). In 1975, the BOR put a freeze on University hiring. The CHE extracted a million
dollars from MSU's reserve fund and transferred the dollars to the University of Montana
and the CHE office. The fallout from that controversial action led McIntosh to resign
on June 30, 1977, and the CHE to resign the next year. The 1977 legislature provided
generous support to MSU for the next biennium.

Montana Courts ruled in 1976 that MSU had discriminated against women faculty
members and imposed strict rules for fair personnel management. MSU was selected by
the University of Washington to be Montana's participating institution in a multi-state
cooperative medical education program. By 1977, MSU enrollment had grown to 9800,
the largest school in the state. The physical size of the campus increased also. New
buildings included: Sales Stadium, Marga Hosaeus Center, Creative Arts Complex, Wilson
Hall, Sherrick Hall, and Leon Johnson Hall.

At the National level, the Viet Nam War ended with the fall of Saigon in 1975,
legislation created the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, 1970), an expanded Clean
Air Act (1970), the Clean Water Act (1972), the Student Loan Marketing Association
(Sallie Mae, 1973), and a Civil Rights Act (1974). The U.S. Constitution was amended
in 1971 to lower the voting age to 18 from 21. The U.S. celebrated its bicentennial
in 1976.

President Nixon, who had been re-elected in 1972, resigned in 1974 because of
the Watergate scandal; VP Gerald Ford became the President. The country experienced
a recession for the two years of 1973-1974. The energy crisis began in 1973 and lasted
through the decade.

In the world of statistics beyond MSU, this era produced the proportional hazard
model and regression modeling of censored failure time data, an increased interest
in cross-validation, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), theory and methods for
generalized linear models, the bootstrap method, and box-and-whiskers diagrams.

In September, 1970, Dr. Martin Hamilton, joined McFeely, Tiahrt, and Lund on
the statistics faculty. In 1972, Dr. Robert Engle became department head, replacing
Louis Barrett. In 1976, probabilist Dr. Warren Esty joined the department and provided
unique skills of importance to the Statistics Program.

During this era, the graduate program in statistics conferred the MS degree
to 13 students and the PhD degree to 6 students. The statisticians added undergraduate
courses including an Experimental Design course, an Advanced Sampling course to replace
Genetic Statistics, and a lower division Bayesian course called Decision Making. The
Elementary Statistics course was given the new number 216 in 1972, replacing the number
116 that it held for the previous 10 years. Initially a 3-quarter sequence on Probability
and Stochastic Processes was offered, but before long it was replaced with a 1-quarter
Probability course. New Graduate level courses included Regression Methods in Curve
Fitting, a three-quarter sequence on the Design and Analysis of Experiments, and Advanced
Sampling. Ten new courses were added that covered mentored learning or supplementary
education because those previously unlisted teaching/learning activities needed course
numbers to gain recognition in the BOR and MSU funding formulas.

By 1976, all statistics course numbers were preceded by the rubric STAT rather
than MATH and the Statistics Program and its courses appeared as a separate category
within the department's section in the MSU course catalog. The statisticians were
running an active Statistical Laboratory to provide such services as statistical analysis,
data processing, consulting, and sample survey support.

Ken Tiahrt spearheaded the effort to create the Montana Chapter of the American
Statistical Association. It was formally founded in 1976 and consistently has held
one or two state-wide Chapter meetings each year since.

The Sigma 7 computer was providing main frame computer services. Statisticians
used the SPSS and BMDP statistical packages or their own Fortran programs for batch
submissions. But the Sigma 7 did allow limited interactive computations. Dick Lund
wrote a computer package called MSUSTAT for interactive statistical calculations.
By 1976, MSUSTAT was being used by students for statistics assignments and by researchers
for analyzing small data sets.

**Detailed Chronicle of the Statistics Program: 1971-1976**

* 1970-1972 MSU catalog* This is the first catalog to omit names of instructors from course descriptions.
The course list indicates that

*to the statistics program.*

**four new undergraduate courses were added****Math 420 (G) - 421 (G) - 422 (G) Probability** A; W; S. 3, 3, 3 cr. Lect. 3, 3, 3. PREREQUISITE Math 223 or 233.

Probability space, combinatorial analysis, random variables, probability distributions,
generating functions, laws of large number, renewal theory, random walks, Markov chains,
stochastic processes. To be taken in sequence.

**Math 426 (G) Experimental Design** S. 4 cr. Lect. 3; Lab. 1. PREREQUI5ITE Math 325.

Analysis of subsampling experiments, confounded factorial systems, fractional replication,
split plot designs and variants, incomplete block designs.

* In 1970,Marty Hamilton joined the faculty* as an Assistant Professor of Statistics.

* Dr. Martin (Marty) Alva Hamilton (MSU, 1970–2002)* received his Ph.D. in Statistics in 1968 from Stanford University. His dissertation
“The Robbins-Monro Stochastic Approximation Approach to a Discrimination Problem”
was directed by Prof. Rupert Griel Miller, Jr. Prior to arriving at MSU, Marty served
2+ years as a Commissioned Officer in the United States Public Health Service on assignment
to the Biometry Branch of the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, MD. (

*) With his arrival, the statistics faculty became four (McFeely, Tiahrt, Lund, and Hamilton) among the 23 tenure-track faculty in the department.*

**Marty is a co-author of this history, the one sometimes denoted by MAH.**I (MAH) taught the 407-8-9 from the Hogg and Craig text *Introduction to Mathematical Statistics*. I was also assigned to teach the new 420-1-2 sequence, which was probably created
for Mode. I think I used William Feller’s *An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications, Vol. 1*, 3rd Edition followed by Emanuel Parzen’s *Stochastic Processes*.

**Graduate Degrees Awarded: 1970 - 1972**

**The ****MS degree was awarded in 1972 to the statistics student Robert Chew.**

**The ****Ph.D. degree was awarded in 1970 to statistics students Richard Leo Schwaller, and
in 1971 to Roy Neal Byrd.**

- Dr. Schwaller’s dissertation “A Method of Constrained Randomization for ... Factorials” was supervised by Dr.
Kenneth J. Tiahrt.
^{3} - Dr. Byrd’s dissertation “A Multivariate Runs Statistic” also was supervised by Dr. Kenneth J. Tiahrt.
^{6}

* 1972-1974 MSU* catalog

**Robert Engle, Dept. Head (1972-77) 1972 photo**

The Math Department tenure-track faculty remained as before, although it additionally
listed 15 instructors of which 3 were statisticians. On * July 1, 1972, the mathematician Dr. Robert Engle (Head, 1972-77) became department
head*, replacing Louis Barrett.

In the statistics course offerings, Math 116 - Elementary Statistics was renumbered
to become Math 216. The courses Math 428 - Genetic statistics and Math 429 - Sampling
theory were replaced with Math 428 - Methodology and theory for sampling and Math
429 - Advanced methodology and theory for sampling; i.e., * the Genetic Statistics course was replaced by an Advanced Sampling course. Five new courses were offered*:

**Math 120 Decision Making** A,W,S. 4cr.

Philosophy and terminology of quantitative decision making for the general student.
Games and decisions, Descriptive statistics, uses and misuses of statistics, recognition
of statistical problems.

**Math 216 Elementary Statistics** A. W, S. Su. 4 cr. Lect. 3; Lab. I.

PREREQUISITE: Math 100.

Presentation of data, measures of location and variability, probability, interval
estimation, tests of hypotheses for normal and binomial populations. Desk calculators
are used in laboratory.

**Math 527 Regression Methods In Curve Fitting** Su. 4 cr. Lect. 3; Lab. 1. PREREQUISITE: Math 325.

The multiple regression model and selection techniques, examination of residuals,
relationship of regression and analysis of variance, nonlinear estimation and curve
fitting. The electronic high-speed computer is utilized for data analysis.

**Math 577 – 578 – 579 Design and Analysis of Experiments** A, W, S. (Alternate years, will be offered 1972-73)

3, 3,3 cr. PREREQUISITES: Math 409 and 426.

Theory, analysis, construction, confounding, randomization of factorial systems, incomplete
block designs, fractional replicates, topics from areas of current research.

Although not mentioned in its description, *Math 120 Decision Making was ** a Bayesian introduction to probability and quantitative reasoning.* Initially, lectures followed the book

*Making Decisions*by D. V. Lindley (1971), New York: John Wiley & Sons, vii + 189pp.

I (REL) taught the 527 Regression Methods course following the book *Applied Regression Analysis* by N. R. Draper and H. Smith (1966) New York: John Wiley & Sons, ix + 407pp. We think
that the 577-8-9 Design of Experiments course relied on *The Design and Analysis of Experiments – 2nd edition* by O. Kempthorne (1967) New York: John Wiley & Sons and *Experimental Designs – 2nd edition* by W. G. Cochran and G. M. Cox (1957) New York: John Wiley & Sons, as well as Ken
Tiahrt’s notes.

* In 1972, I (MAH) accepted a 10% joint appointment to the WAMI (now WWAMI) medical
education program* to teach biostatistics and epidemiology to first year medical students. WAMI is a
regional medical education program based at the University of Washington and serving
Alaska, Montana, and Idaho, three states that don't have free-standing medical schools.
The acronym WAMI was created from the names of the four participating states. Ultimately
Wyoming joined and the acronym became WWAMI. At that time, MSU's WAMI students were
admitted into the University of Washington School of Medicine, but received their
basic medical instruction at MSU. Medical students were taught the same curriculum
as at the University of Washington. A rigorous evaluation of this unique experiment
in regional medical education required the instructors across the WAMI locations to
follow the same syllabus and administer a common final exam. Success required coordination
and extra effort, but the inter-campus interactions proved instructive and helpful.

During this era, MSU statisticians benefited from a new computer and statistical software for interactive computations:

**Interactive Statistical Calculations at MSU via the package MSUSTAT: 1972 - 1976
**

**by Dick Lund**

**T*** he MSU Sigma 7 computer was installed on the bottom floor of the library east annex
in 1968*. The location was convenient for the statisticians because the Math Department was
housed on the top floor of the library east annex. A version of the popular

*Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS)*was acquired in 1972 for use on the Sigma 7. The next year we had access also to the full Bio-Medical Data Package (BMDP) on the Sigma 7. (We were already using BMD0, a preliminary version of the package.) BMDP utilized “English-based control language”.

About that same time, I (Dick Lund; REL) became aware of a small statistical package
named *MINISTAT* that had been submitted to the Sigma 7 User’s Group. MINISTAT was designed to operate
in ** an interactive mode that was available on MSU’s Sigma 7**.

There were twenty Teletype machines lined up across the user area of the Computer Center. The Teletypes enabled input from the keyboard, input-output by punched paper tape, and printed output at about ten characters per second. A full page of typical output would require a couple minutes. Teletypes were noisy and slow. But for small problems, time was not a factor and one could avoid the hassle and inefficiencies of batch submittal.

* Using the original MINISTAT code as a guide, I adapted my code for batch jobs and
developed my own version of MINISTAT* for analysis related to the statistical methods courses. By the time I finished the
coding, the original MINISTAT code had been completely replaced, and made easier to
use because the new package used an English-based control language similar to that
of BMDP. Also, user errors and inconsistencies produced explanatory notes rather than
the terse rejection codes of the batch system. The students were delighted! Computer
processing costs were reduced to a small fraction of that required for the batch oriented
programs; e.g., an estimated cost of $0.23 versus $2.30 for a typical student run
on BMDP.

Before long, graduate students were analyzing their thesis data with my program and
were teaching their faculty about the interactive program. With that encouragement,
and for my own use, I added new procedures, upgraded some inefficient algorithms,
and added a HELP command to provide assistance to the user. **In 1976, I finished writing a manual of about 70 pages and the computer package was officially called MSUSTAT.**^{9} The manual provided MSUSTAT commands for analyzing data examples from the popular
textbook by Snedecor and Cochran.^{12}

Although many of the batch-oriented computers on other campuses did not support interactive
computing, MSUSTAT was used by statisticians at some universities that had XDS Sigma
7 computers. * The MSU statisticians and their students had the advantage of using the MSUSTAT interactive
program whenever appropriate, and the comprehensive SPSS or BMDP packages in batch
mode for more complicated analysis.* For non-standard analysis and for new methods created by statistics researchers,
the MSU statisticians wrote FORTRAN code programs and relied on batch submissions to
the Sigma 7.

^{15}

#### - Dick Lund

**Graduate Degrees Awarded: 1972 - 1974**

**The MS degree was awarded in 1973 to the statistics student Susan Marie Hinkins.**

* 1974-1976 MSU catalog*The Department faculty consisted of 22 tenure-track professors, including four statisticians
(McFeely, Tiahrt, Lund, Hamilton) who were the statistics faculty. Among the 14 instructors,
4 were statisticians.

In the statistics course offerings,* the probability/stochastic processes sequence 420-1-2 was deleted*. To provide a stand alone probability course, Math 407 – Probability was separately
listed. Mathematical Statistics was the subject of the sequence 408-9. The book we
were using at the time,

*Introduction to Mathematical Statistics*by R. V. Hogg and A. T. Craig (1970) Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, was suited to that partitioning because its first few chapters were dedicated to probability from the basic axioms through the central limit theorem.

*:*

**A new graduate course on sampling was added****Math 528 Applied Statistics**S. (Alternate years, will be offered 1974-75). 4 cr. Lect. 3, Lab. 1. PREREQUISITES: Math 407 and 428. Advanced methodology and theory for sampling from finite populations.

**Graduate Degrees Awarded: 1974 - 1976**

**MS in Mathematics degrees were awarded in 1975 to the statistics students James Cass,
Penny Fangmeier, and M. Gail Linnell.**

**PhD degrees were awarded in 1974 to the statistics students James Leonard Hansen and
Reider Sverre Peterson.**

- Dr. Hanson ’s dissertation “One at a Time Plans for 2
^{p}Factor Sequencing Designs” was directed by Dr. Kenneth J. Tiahrt;^{18} - Dr. Peterson’s dissertation “Ratio Estimation in Randomized Response Designs” was directed by Dr. Kenneth J.
Tiahrt.
^{21}

#### **MSU Statistics Program Hosts the Visit of ISU Professor T. A. Bancroft―1975**

by Dick Lund

Funds became available for the Department to invite a renowned figure in mathematics or statistics to visit us. In fall 1974, Ken an ever-consummate promoter of the stature of our statistics program, brought to me a query, "Do you think we could get Dr. Bancroft to come out?" Within our further conversation, I replied, "Yes, maybe; I can try. What should I tell him?"

Bancroft (1907-1986) had retired from his administrative duties in 1972, but remained on the Iowa State University (ISU) faculty in a teaching position. He had just completed a tour in Japan that fall, visiting five universities, and presenting "Role of a complete Statistical Center in a large university." He served as a consultant and on advisory boards for numerous U.S. and foreign universities.

I wrote a letter to Bancroft, telling him about our current program and noting recognition of some important issues. This brought his willingness for a visit on February 2-4, 1975. He offered two formal presentations and he met with us statisticians, our students, and several administrators. Bancroft responded by letter after returning home from his visit, stating "I firmly believe that Montana State has already made a good beginning in the development of a viable statistical program."

##### T. A. Bancroft lecture, MSU 1975

We statisticians were very pleased. He offered good advice and brought our needs to the MSU administration. While he made no mention of the vision Ostle (and likely he) surely held when initiating the statistics program at MSC back in 1952, nevertheless he clearly concluded that we were fulfilling Ostle's intentions.

Bancroft's two letters to Lund add further information about this "milestone" in
the history of the development of the Statistics Program at MSU. They show too the
management style of a kind and gracious leader of the ISU Department of Statistics
and Director of the Statistical Laboratory. [The following links take you to the letters,
to return to this page use your devices "back" button or gesture: Letter of Jan. 23, 1975, Letter of Feb. 10, 1975] The "Iowa State – Chapingo, Mexico Project" referenced in the first letter is explained
in the Narrative at the end of my Vita in *About the Authors* on the Title Page.

##### Tiahrt, Lund, Pres. McIntosh, & T. A. Bancroft, MSU 1975

**About T. A. Bancroft and His Statistical Leadership**

Theodore A. Bancroft was born in Columbus, Mississippi, but with an early education in Alabama. He attended Howard College in Birmingham and received an A.B. degree in Mathematics from the U. of Florida in 1927. He taught in Alabama public high schools a few years and moved from there to the U. of Michigan, receiving an M.A. in Mathematics in 1934. His time at ISU began as a graduate assistant in 1941. He completed a PhD, with guidance by William G. Cochran, in the World War II year of 1943. His dissertation was titled "Tests of Significance Considered as an Aid in Statistical Methodology." His interest in testing and combining tests from across research studies remained through his career.

W. G. Cochran is the coauthor with Snedecor of the renowned textbook *Statistical Methods,* 6th edition (Iowa State U. Press) used in many of my (Lund's) statistical methods
courses at MSU. Cochran followed the tradition forward of R.A. Fisher from his time
at Rothamsted (Agricultural) Experiment Station in the mid-thirties, and that carried
into Bancroft's views for statistics.

Bancroft was appointed Director of the ISU Statistical Laboratory and Head of the Department of Statistics in 1950, at which time there were 12 faculty members and 5 graduate assistants. When moving away from that leadership position in 1972, there were 30 faculty members and 25 graduate assistants. But he produced not just numbers, also he fostered the growth of service teaching, statistical computing, and statistical consulting. He initiated an undergraduate major program in statistics, in addition to promoting and enlarging the graduate program.

His professional stature is demonstrated by selection as President of the American
Statistical Association (1970) and President of the Eastern North American Region
of the International Biometric Society (1964). He was recognized as a Fellow of several
professional organizations, including the American Statistical Association, the Institute
of Mathematical Statistics, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
He was an elected member of the International Statistical Institute. Many more details
are offered in: Fuller, Wayne A. and Kempthorne, Oscar, "In Memoriam: Theodore Alfonso
Bancroft, 1907-1986," *The American Statistician*, Vol.1, No. 3*,* August, 1987.

Bancroft coauthored with R.L. Anderson the book *Statistical Theory in Research*, which I (Lund) used in one course at UW and he wrote *Topics in Intermediate Statistical Methods* (now in 6^{th} edition), that was used in one class I took from him at ISU in 1964. He was my initial
advisor at the start of my PhD program at ISU, and continued to be a mentor as my
program advanced over three years as a graduate student. Bancroft was my direct supervisor
in the ISU/Chapingo Mexico Project for developing a Graduate Program in Statistics
and Economics at Mexico's National Agricultural School, this being funded by the Ford
Foundation. More specifically, the institution is the Colegio de Postgradios, at Escuela
Nacional de Agricultura located at Chapingo, Mexico.

– Dick Lund

**1976-1978 MSU catalog**

* For the first time, the Statistics program and courses were listed as a separate category within the Department
of Mathematics.* The heading was:

**Statistics – Department of Mathematics** – Head of Department: Dr. R. D. Engle.

Associate Professors: M.A. Hamilton, R.E. Lund, F.S. McFeely, K.J. Tiahrt.

* In 1976, the probabilist Warren Esty joined the Department's faculty.* received his PhD in Mathematics from the University of Wisconsin in 1973. His dissertation
“Conditioned Limit Laws in Age-Dependent Branching Processes and Some Associated Diffusions”
was supervised by Prof. Peter E. Ney. Warren came to MSU following three years of
academic experience at Cleveland State University. The statistics faculty requested
this position because the program needed an expert in probability who could contribute
to both the statistics program and the mathematical analysis program. Esty perfectly
fit the need. It turned out that, because of his communication skills and breadth
of knowledge, he made important contributions to the mathematics education program
too.

Dr. Warren Wilder Esty (1976-2015)

Ken Tiahrt spearheaded the effort to create the Montana Chapter of the American Statistical
Association and it was formally founded in 1976. Then, as is still the case, the Chapter
represented the entire state of Montana, with hot spots of members in Bozeman, Butte,
Helena, and Missoula. The MSU Statistics Program has been the primary supporter of
the Chapter throughout the years.

* For all statistics courses, the rubric "Stat" replaced the rubric "Math." *The course numbers, names, prerequisites, and descriptions were unchanged, except
that

*. The statistics option and degree program were as follows:*

**some new courses were added****Statistics Option for Undergraduate Students** (as of 1976)

Statistics is the science of collection, organization and analysis of quantitative data in such a way as to enable conclusions to be drawn and their reliability measured by probabilities. It has become invaluable to the advancement of knowledge in virtually every field. There is considerable demand in industry, government, and universities for persons trained in the modern theory and methodology of statistics. The statistics option is designed to prepare students for such positions or for graduate work in this field.

Students in this option will become familiar with the use of the electronic computer in doing statistical problems. The student who wishes to acquire competence in computer science has ample opportunity to do so by taking elective credits in that field, many of which will satisfy specific degree requirements in this option.

The first two years of this option are the same as for the mathematics curriculum except that ML 101, 102. 103 (non-math/stat core courses) may be replaced by electives and any of the credits in physics may be replaced by an equal number of additional credits in Applications Areas listed below under Core Requirements.

Junior Year |
A | W | S |

Stat 324, 325, 326—Statistical Methods | 4 | 4 | 4 |

Stat 426—Experimental Design | 4 | ||

Mathematics or statistics electives** | 4 | ||

Electives* | 12 | 12 | 4 |

Total | 16 | 16 | 16 |

Senior Year |
|||

Stat 407 – Probability | 4 | ||

Stat 408, 409 – Math Statistics | 4 | 4 | |

Stat 428 – Applied Statistics | 4 | ||

Mathematics or statistics elective** | 4 | 4 | 4 |

Electives* | 8 | 4 | 8 |

Total | 16 | 16 | 16 |

*Some electives should be used to complete the following **Core requirements.**

CORE: Credits

Fine arts and humanities 12

History, social sciences 12

Application areas 24

To be chosen from two or more of the following areas with at least eight credits in
one area:

agricultural sciences, biological sciences, chemistry, computer science, economics,
engineering, earth science, physics, psychology, social sciences or other areas approved
by the student’s adviser.

**Mathematics and statistics electives are to be chosen with the concurrence of the
student’s adviser.

Military science may be used as an elective.

This 1976-1978 catalog lists** two new undergraduate courses and eight new graduate courses**, all of which were introduced because of a university-wide attempt to document via
credits the actual teaching effort expended by its faculty. These courses pertain
to mentored work or supplementary education activities that merited recognition.

**Stat 470 Individual Problems**(On demand). 1-4 cr. Ind. St. Maximum 6 cr.

Directed research and study on an individual basis.

**Stat 480 Special Topics**(On demand). 1-4 cr. Lect. Maximum 16 cr.

Courses not required in any curriculum for which there is a particular need, or given on a trial basis to determine demand.

**Stat 500 Seminar**(On demand). 1-5 cr. Sem. May be repeated for credit.

Topics selected from material not covered in regular courses. Students participate in preparing and presenting lectures.

**Stat 570 Individual Problems**(On demand). 1-5 cr. Ind. St. Maximum 9 cr.

PREREQUISITES: Graduate standing, consent of instructor, approval of department head and Dean of Graduate Studies.

Directed research and study on an individual basis.

**Stat 580 Special Topics**(On demand). 1-5 cr. Lect. Maximum 15 Cr.

Courses not required in any curriculum for which there is a particular need, or given on a trial basis to determine demand. An in-depth study of selected topics from statistics.

**Stat 589 Graduate Consultation**(On demand). 3 cr. Ind. St.

PREREQUISITES: Master’s standing and approval of the Dean of Graduate Studies.

This course may be used only by students who have completed all of their course work (and thesis, if on a thesis plan) for a master’s degree but who need additional faculty help or time.

**Stat 590 Master’s Thesis**(On demand). 3-12 Cr. Ind. St. May be repeated.

PREREQUISITE: Master’s standing.

**Stat 630 Recent Advances in Statistics**(On demand). 1-4 Cr. Lect. May be repeated for credit.

PREREQUISITES: One graduate level sequence in statistics.

A study of current research topics in an area of advanced mathematical statistics.

**Stat 689 Reading & Research**(On demand). 3-5 cr. Ind. St.

**Stat 690 Doctoral Thesis**(On demand). 3-12 cr. Ind. St.

PREREQUISITE: Doctoral standing.

* By 1976, an active Statistical Laboratory was functioning*. It was described in two sections of this catalog:

In the Mathematics Department section:

**Statistical Laboratory**

The Statistical Laboratory is a subsidiary arm of the Department of Mathematics concerned with statistical consulting and research. Its membership consists of statistics staff members and other professional persons. The laboratory provides many opportunities for direct application of statistical procedures in actual real world problems.

Elsewhere in the catalog:

**Statistical Laboratory**

The Statistical Laboratory is a service and research organization which promotes and fosters the use of sound statistical methods in University research and conducts research in statistical theory and methodology. The laboratory cooperates closely with research scientists in all colleges of the University. Staff and facilities are maintained for statistical consulting, statistical analysis and data processing, sample survey operations, statistical design and analysis of surveys and experiments. These services are extended to off-campus groups when such activities are of mutual benefit or otherwise in the public interest.

**Graduate Degrees Awarded: 1976 - 1978**

**MS degrees were awarded to several statistics students, in 1976 to James Bergum, Milton
Loyer, Lynda Steele, Wendy (Whitmore) Swanson, and Jack Williams, and in 1977 to Edwin
G. Landauer, James Pellegrini, and Kent Sandefer.**

**PhD degrees were awarded in 1976 to the statistics students Dennis Patrick Brady and
Charles Edward Shaffer.**

- Dr. Brady’s dissertation “Elimination of Continuous Variates Used in Classification and Discrimination When
Both Binary and Continuous Variables are Present” was supervised by Dr. Kenneth J.
Tiahrt;
^{24} - Dr. Shaffer’s dissertation “Estimation of Cumulative Totals” was supervised by Dr. Kenneth J. Tiahrt.
^{27}##### Stat Prog at MSU during Era 7

Next topic (Adv in Statistics) during Era 6

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Last revised: 2021-06-06