• Uses rarefaction to compensate for the effect of sample size on estimates of the number of alleles and number of private alleles in samples from hierarchical data.


  • Estimates the frequency of null alleles at microsatellite loci.


  • Estimates relatedness or relationship among individuals from genetic data.


  • Estimates the probability distribution for genetic differences in a population. This is useful for planning studies using non-invasive DNA to identify individuals.


  • Checks genotypes for agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations.

Genotype Viewer

  • Depicts summary statistics for a GENEPOP file: sample sizes, amount of missing data, number of alleles, gene frequencies, heterozygosities, and Fst.


  • Estimates how much each section of a river contributes to the genetic differentiation among populations.


  • Software for genetic stock identification (mixture analysis and assignment tests).


  • Evaluates how well a UPGMA or neighbor-joining tree fits a genetic distance matrix.


  • Estimates reproductive success and parentage using genetic data.

Sequence Viewer for Students

  • Educational software for viewing and comparing DNA sequences.


  • Estimates the composition of hybrids using SNP and other diallelic loci that have fixed differences between taxa.

Genetic distances

  • Calculates common genetic distances from GENEPOP files. These include Nei's (1987) Ds, Nei's (1987) Da, and Weir and Cockerham's (1984) theta.

GenoQuickSim (for Mark Taper)

  • Simulates genotypic data using coalescent methods.

Program Requirements

These programs run under the Microsoft Windows 98 (or later) operating system. They also require the Microsoft .NET (pronounced "dot net") framework. The .NET Framework is a component of the Microsoft Windows operating system used to build and run Windows-based applications. If you have a recent version of Windows, you probably already have .NET installed on your computer. You can check by clicking Start on your Windows desktop, selecting ControlPanel, and then double-clicking the Add or Remove Programs icon. When that window appears, scroll through the list of applications. If you see Microsoft .NET Framework 2.0 listed, the latest version is already installed and you do not need to install it again.

If you do not have .NET already installed on your computer, the easiest way to install it is to update your operating system. This is relatively painless. To begin, open Microsoft Explorer, select Tools --> Windows Update, find Microsoft .NET framework 2.0 and install it (It will be listed under "Pick updates to install").