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Hello, everybody! Thanks so much for joining us for our third presentation of the 2020-21 Health Equity Webinar Series. My name is Sue Higgins, representing the three NIH-funded health research centers hosting this webinar from Montana State University in Bozeman. These are the Center for American Indian and Rural Health Equity, Montana INBRE, and the AI/AN Clinical and Translational Research Program. I'd also like to thank Bill Stadwiser, Montana INBRE’s communications director, who's here with us too should any technical difficulties pop up. I'd like to acknowledge and honor with great respect the Indigenous stewards on whose traditional territories MSU now stands and whose historical relationship with the land continue to this day. MSU is located in the common hunting ground and major crossroads for Plains and Plateau Native nations including Shoshone, Nez Perce, Dakota, Salish, Crow, and Blackfeet. Today we're really delighted to welcome Dr. Carl Yeoman, who will offer a presentation on bioinformatics and biostatistics and health equity research. Dr. Yeoman is the director of the Montana INBRE Bioinformatics and Biostatistics Core and is also associate professor in the Department of Animal and Range Sciences at Montana State University. His own research seeks to uncover the various forces shaping the structure and function of host associated microbial communities and understanding their impact on host nutrition health and development. His work to date has focused on the microbial communities associated with humans, wild and captive primates, and various agriculturally important livestock species, including cattle and insect pests, and trans and transcends gastrointestinal and reproductive tract niches. Dr. Yeoman's research employs multiple molecular methods and often involves longitudinal and biospatial analyses, which he believes are critical to a complete understanding of the microbiome. As mentioned before he's the director of the Bioinformatics and Biostatistics Core of Montana INBRE and we'll tell you more about that in just a bit a few quick notes you'll see at the bottom of your screen uh the q a function so if you have questions or comments just type them in there and I’m gonna be watching those as we go you're welcome to ask questions during Dr. Yeoman's talk and we're also recording this webinar so if if you'd like to come back or if you have colleagues who've missed today's presentations we'll be recording it and posting it after after the webinar so with that thanks a lot Carl for being here and I’ll turn things over to you I’ll uh uh I’ll have you share your screen I’m gonna stop mine you might need to enable me again so I’m getting that message got it hang on there we go hope that worked yep okay okay well uh thank you for the introduction Sue um uh I always enjoy making sure that my bio is somewhat of a tongue twister um so uh you did a good job getting through it okay uh thank you all for um showing up um I’m going to talk today about Montana libraries bioinformatics and biostatistics core and hopefully in doing so have you appreciate the valuable resource that you have at your fingertips so the bioinformatics and biostatistics core was born from Montana INBRE's commitment to foster biomedical research in Montana with the underlying goal to improve the health and well-being of the people of Montana with an emphasis on our tribal and rural populations INBRE achieves that goal by investing in researchers throughout the state including a phd granting institutions like Montana state or the university of Montana at tribal colleges and at our community colleges as part of that investment they provide those researchers access to the opportunities and the research and career tools necessary to apply their expertise toward benefiting those communities and I've experienced this first hand being funded in 2016 to work with Dr. Elizabeth Rink and the Fort Peck Community College in a project that led to subsequent funded opportunities that have today provided almost 100 women with insights into aspects of their own health and gynecological risks uh has led to manuscripts including one that we've just recently submitted describing previously unrecognized links between stress smoking and the risks of sexually transmitted infection and is a partial basis for an nih ground that we recently resubmitted after narrowly missing the pay line in our first emission by a couple of points but also it provided me an opportunity to personally work with students at the fort pitt community college and teach them bioinformatics as part of two summer summer courses both six weeks in length that I taught there in both 2017 and 2019 and so having experienced first-hand the value of Montana INBRE when Dr. brian bothner approached me last year to see if I would take on our role as director of the INBRE biomedics and biostatistics corps I was admittedly a little nervous recognizing the great leadership this role has had in the past but also happy to get involved and help other researchers fulfill their goals and serving the people of our great state unfortunately covert struck shortly after I joined the INBREo team which has limited what we've been able to achieve thus far but looking for it I’m hopeful that the bioinformatics and biostatistical core can not only continue to support our INBREo researchers but grow the profile of these important backbones of biological and biomedical research in this great state and to serve those researchers that caught home by providing the resources to ensure that their research endeavors are at the cutting edge I’m also very grateful to Sue higgins for affording me this opportunity to remind you that we are still here and ready to work with you and for you and to remind you that the many resources that we have that may be of value to you and talk a little bit about some of the new initiatives we're working towards that we hope will improve our value to you but more importantly I’m hoping to engage you in discussion about what you would like to see from us or a need that we might be able to develop to aid your own research programs and so this won't be an hour of me lecturing to you rather I've deliberately left ample time at the end for discussion and to answer any questions you might have but I'd also like to invite you to ask questions as we go along or provide any comments or feedback that you might have this here that I’m showing you is the main web page for the Montana INBRE bioinformatics and biostatistics core which you can locate fairly readily through a google search or directly through this link right here it provides an up-to-date overview of the bioinformatics and biostatistics core and this is where we'll try to keep you appraised of all new opportunities and other developments INBRE's bioinformatics and biostatistics core comprises three major components scissors which is our statistical consulting and research services group that is led by Dr. Mark greenwood the human ecology learning and problem solving lab or helps lab led by Dr. eric riley and the bioinformatics corps and it was to broadly categorize where we might each be of value to your research programs it would be both as early including by soliciting our input into the development of your grants but certainly talk to us as soon as possible before sample collection or data collection to ensure that your approach is going to deliver you the results that you're searching for also talk to us later at the end when you have some data that you're looking to interpret as we can provide the support to appropriately analyze interpret and present those data perhaps the only exception to that generalization applies to the helps lab where eric gridder and the team additionally provide their expertise in collecting data the helps lab provides an outstanding resources outstanding resource rather to in particular social science research endeavors and we'll work with you to develop survey instruments and then to distribute those surveys or conduct interviews or focus groups and if necessary transcribe and process the resulting data even if you plan to carry out your own surveys or focus groups I would strongly encourage you to work with eric gruder and their team to make sure that your survey or interview will achieve what you're setting out for it to do these are exceptionally experienced sorry they are exceptionally experienced in these endeavors and I know firsthand that they can identify potential flaws in your instrument or design that might not be obvious to the less experienced and you can actually hear about some of the research eric and his team have been involved in and see firsthand the expertise that they might bring to your own research programs tonight as part of the msu fireside chat if you're interested and available making sure that you rsvp uh building on that the statistical consulting and research services or scissors provides in my opinion the most important and yet undervalued service now to our researchers in statistical consulting and analysis and what I mean by that is in particular being unvalued is that statistical analyses are a fundamental underpinning of all research and while it makes considerable contributions to ensuring this service is available to its researchers the demand for their service far exceeds their capacity both locally and regionally and so it'd be great to see more institutional and region regional resources made available to increase the capacity of the service nevertheless scissors can take the curated data from the helps lab or from any other research efforts that you're engaging in and work with you to ensure that it's appropriately analyzed and that your conclusions are truly reflective of the data that you've developed I'd like to point out that Dr. Mark greenwood the director is kindly also made available his time today and is available for any questions related to statistical consulting and that research court if you are interested in consulting with the scissors team again they like you to talk to them as early as possible and they are uh overwhelmed uh often but they have a web gate that requests must be made through and that's available at the following web link page as an extension to the great contributions scissors makes inbury in partnership with care have recently appointed Dr. Nicole carnegie to oversee the demand for biostatistics related to clinical trials which by nih's definition is any study in which one or more human subjects are prospectively assigned to one or more interventions these may include placebos or other controls to evaluate the effects of those interventions on health related biomedical or biobehavioral outcomes clinical trial research is a unique endeavor that involves both ethical and safety considerations that need to be adDr.essed both with institutional review boards and funding agencies before any research can be carried out and then often important anonymity and other considerations must be observed during analyses and reporting so Nicole's experience and expertise in these aspects makes her a valuable resource to embrace researchers and the core like Mark Nicole is or will join us shortly and similarly has offered her time to answer any questions that you might have okay so what about bioinformatics in stepping into this role and through my time here at Montana state university I've come to recognize that this is perhaps the least understood and probably the most under-appreciated arm of the court while many researchers in the INBRE program rely on bioinformatics and to varying extents have the ability to carry out bioinformatic analyses themselves or within their labs others are perhaps less certain on how bioinformatics might enrich their own research programs or allow them to obtain answers to questions that they might not have known how to ask so if you don't mind I'd like to spend a little bit of time here by definition bioinformatics is the development and application of methods and software tools for understanding biological data in practice it is a field that connects biological research to computer and information science as well as to statistics to glean information from in particular data heavy sources that are often beyond the practical ability of most researchers operating without bioinformatic tools by and large bioinformatics is a field developed to service the needs of molecular biology as the so-called omics techniques that have grown from predicting functions for individual genes to endeavors like sequencing the three billion base per human genome or studying the composition and function of the trillions of microbes that live within us with this growing ambition being facilitated by technological advances that have developed at a staggering rate which I can best perhaps summarize in a personal example we're by the chair of my phd committee back in the late 90s during her own graduate thesis work spent five years to produce around about 300 nucleotides of a phage genome and then just a decade later during my own phd back in the mid to late 2000s we sequenced two bacterial genomes where one was almost two million bases and the other was little more than four million bases in just three years and then a short time after that as an early faculty member in 2012 we were actually able to sequence 20 bacterial genomes in around about 24 hours excluding bioinformatics was required for the assembly analysis of those sequences another way to illustrate this perhaps is by looking at the numbers of genome projects that have grown over time we know the first phage genome was sequenced in the mid 70s but now we have genome sequences for around about 175 000 bacteria approximately 75 000 eukaryotes almost 20 000 viruses and around a thousand or so different arc here and while computational power has similarly increased exponential rates as is most commonly illustrated through moore's law or the observation that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles approximately every two years which itself corresponds to increased computational capability as I’m sure you've seen evidence of if you've or as you've upgraded your own computers over the years however the major limitations in making sense of this Dr.amatic increase in sequence data and as I’ll discuss shortly other molecular data has been the software to leverage this growing computational capacity for interrogating it and that is where bioinformatics has become important so perhaps in its earliest and most basic form bioinformatics has been used to take fragmented dna sequence data and assemble it into genomes and I've shown you here four examples of many others that are a person we've been involved in producing known examples of fiber fiber degrading gap bacterium which has a very unique genome composition whereby it actually has two different chromosomes and two very large plasmids a first a sorry an archaeal genome um which exists in the roman this is actually the first rumor narcan that was sequenced this particular organism produces a problematic gas known as methane and then up here are two uh human pathogens we can also assemble genomes from genomic data or data where we have dna sequence information collected from complex communities as opposed to pure species and here we have developed a genome for a symbiotic bacterium that's associated with the wheat seam sulfide which is an insect pest of the wheat industry by producing sorry by processing whole insect tissues and as you can see here the resulting information has given us uh information on the insects genome described here as the host the insect diet we're able to capture part of the wheat genome but also the genome of the microbial endosymbol we can use that sequence data and compare multiple genomes whether it be looking at the previous preservation of composition and structure using something like this which is a symphony plot here we are looking at the full length of two different bacterial genomes these uh little they're actually arrows that they might not appear as so on your screens given it's shrunken down to the size it is but these represent the genes that are predicted throughout the different genomes and these lines that are colored either red or blue represent genes that are the same in the two genomes the red being those that are present on the same strand of the dna so recognizing that dna is double-stranded and genes can occur on either strand of that dna or the blue are genes that have moved from one strand to the other and so you can see in this case these are two organisms that actually belong to the same species but in terms of their genomic structure are very different and there's been a lot of rearrangement that's going on there this is from the same paper actually but we can look at the number of conserved and unique genes amongst different species and we can do this with just a few different genomes or we can do this on a larger scale looking at many different genomes in this case we're looking across a whole genus of different species and every genome has been sequenced from members of that genus and so we can define core genes that belong in that taxonomic group those that are unique to the different species within that group and those that are unique to the individuals within each species these can be important for identifying potential targets or causes of diseases or other differences in phenotype so we can identify genes in a genome annotate them to look for the function that's what I’m trying to illustrate here in this table and even map these to metabolic pathways both for individuals here we're looking at that methanogen that archaeom that I talked about just before the producers um methane and this one that fibrolytic or fiber degrading bacterial species and so we can do that for individual species to identify reasons why a certain phenotype exists or is not being observed and also to identify potential therapeutic targets we can also do this in a comparative way and as you can see here we're comparing the genomes or the genomic coded metabolic potential of two different members of the same bacterial species whereas one is associated with the disease and the other is not and through this process identify metabolic pathways that might be relevant to that disease process or we can simply look at elements of multiple genomes to assist the phylogeny or evolutionary relationship so as to ask evolutionary related questions in this case on the right we're trying to establish what the species actually was and how it related to other known species where it ultimately turned out that this was a novel species of a non-genera with no close relatives while the figure on the left were illustrating that commonly applied methods to delineate species are occasionally incongruent with an organism's physiology and function and consequently as true species designations and as a result of this this particular genus was recently divided into four recognized and another nine probable species that each have various relationships to health and disease but we can contribute more than just genomics or contribute to I should say and I apologize but here's a cooking duty genetics refresher um genes within the dna are transcribed into what's known as rnas or messenger rnas which encode those genes and those genes are then translated on ribosomes into proteins and these proteins can assemble with other proteins and fold into structures that either provide enzymatic functions or structural functions that are important in carrying out the physiology and function associated with different organisms and the reason that I’m giving you this fresh refresher is that omics technologies generally exploit some part of this process and in deciphering those data sets researchers rely on bioinformatics so for example we can ask questions about what species are present and a common application of this that we have a lot of experience in is asking what microbial species are present when we're asking about microbial species the most common method of doing this is sequencing a specific part of a gene known as the 16s ribosomal rna gene which is actually part of this operon and because it is fundamental for the translation of a gene or the transcript product of a gene into its functional protein these are actually present throughout life not necessarily as the 16s that's that's a molecule that's present in bacteria and archaea there's a slightly different version of that there's prison and eukaryotes and so we can look at those things as well but it's not necessarily limited to microbes and in fact right now we're in the process of carrying out a project where we're looking at diet across a large number of wild herbivorous species and we're profiling the diet by looking at other marker genes that are present in all plant chloroplasts and so we can take that information match it to large databases that have been developed over the years and use that information to answer what this sequence derives from and then by looking at the number of sequences that hit that um that entity that species or whatever you're uh probing we can get a sense of the relative abundances or the composition of the overall community as a whole and they're like I say this is something that [Music] I've personally been involved in a lot over the years and so there are many examples that I could point to here but perhaps some that might be of interest to your own research programs or some portion of your research programs is when it comes to looking at gut microbial communities in the context of diet or in the case on the left-hand diet and phylogeny or what species are being examined ask questions about the impacts of certain dietary components or whole dietary dietary regimens as we're showing here in this figure on the right where we actually looked at humans and non-human primates that were or were not consuming uh typical western diets or those that are high in fats and salts and sugars in showing that the effect of their diet is both profound regardless of species but the how it affects the microbial communities and those two organisms is different but you know that that's one thing that we can look at we can also start to ask questions about not just who's there but what they're capable of and so in that sort of an analysis we can look at more of the genetic material so I've talked a little bit about how we might do this through genomic approaches we can also do this for a whole or complex communities using metagenomic sequencing analyses and this can provide a lot of useful information it improves our taxonomic resolution for the entities that are there it gives us more broader domain level taxonomic representation whereby we cannot not necessarily we don't necessarily limit our analyses to simply just bacteria or ikea we eukaryotic microbes for example but we can capture all of the bacteria the archaea the eukaryotes including the host I mentioned the diet as well as the fungal and protozoa microbes that might reside within that system um but we can also look at viruses and phage which are bacterial viruses that might be of interest to folks right now studying covert and other viral diseases metagenomics also provides information on the genes that each organism carries and so hypotheses can be refined from asking about how a condition might change or be affected by the communities microbial or otherwise that they harbour or diets that they're consuming to what genes might be important to a disease process or other question of importance in this particular figure is an analysis that we published back in 2012 looking at the bovine or cattle virion or viral communities that exist within the gut and the genes that they're moving about and then how those relate to the bacterial communities that are co-present in those systems um but we can also look at the next steps in this process so when we're asking questions by looking at genes in the dna we're asking about what they're capable of but we also need to recognize that just because a gene is present doesn't mean that it is being expressed or expressed at a level that's sufficient to cause any change in the in what's going on and so to move beyond those limitations we can start to do things like look at the messenger rnas or what's being transcribed uh in analyses that are known as transcriptomic uh where you're looking at an individual species or meta transcriptomic where you're looking at whole communities and analyze what they're trying to do how they're up or down regulating genes in response to different perturbations or conditions that they're being exposed to mrnas or messenger rnas are subject to further regulatory events and so just because transcription is occurring doesn't necessitate that it will result in a function and so you can move down this a little bit further and start to look at the proteins that are being expressed again in an individual using a proteomic type approach or in a community using a metaproteomic type approach this doesn't use a sequencing like technology but typically a mass spec or rather type of technology and and so they can tell you a little bit about about what how a community or an individual is responding to different changes within its environment um while I have much less experience with both proteomics and metaproteomics personally I’m certainly familiar with the approach and I’m happy to connect you with the necessary expertise if that is your interest as far as transcriptomic goes however we do have some experience and can look at everything from meta transcriptomes again from complex communities to whole transcriptomes from single species and even at specific genes of interest in this case here on the left we're looking at gene clusters annotated to be involved in the breakdown of dietary fiber and using a transcriptomics approach to distinguish which particular fibers each cluster is responding to this is an important and prevalent gut bacterium that has a key role in nutrition so we can also then ask so when we're looking at uh who's there you know we're not asking a lot about function other than you know some pre-existing information that might exist around what an organism can or cannot do we can look at transcriptomic approaches and get a sense of what they're trying to do proteomics is another thing they can do there um perhaps one of the more exciting uh technologies that we're personally becoming more and more involved in these days is a technique known as metabolomic profiling and this is a technology that has existed for some time I first learned about it when I was a graduate student which was quite some time ago now um but it has gained a lot of favor and it's something that uh international federal agencies are investing uh a reasonable amount of money in these days and exploring diseases and and other things using these technologies um and the benefit here is that instead of asking what different entities are trying to do you're looking uh post hoc of what they've done by looking at changes in the changes in the biochemical environment so metabolomics like today is looking back at the biochemical composition of the environment and how it's been modified it is complex in that it is the sum of actions of all organisms and their enzymes that exist within a system including those that are contributed by the host as well as any exogenous or environmental impersonates um and what I mean by that is you can't look at a specific metabolite and know where it's come from you can start to try and tease apart some of these things but that requires sequencing type approaches in addition to metabolomics nevertheless analysis metabolomic data and its integration with other molecular data is something your group actually has a lot of experience in and as an example here is an analysis from a 2013 paper where we examined the relationships among metabolic profiles or metabolite profiles bacterial compositional profiles and in this case patient signs and symptoms for a common gynecological disease and therein we're able to identify a relationship between certain microbes and certain metabolites that were related to certain signs and symptoms that has actually been a funded focus of our labs research for over the last eight years um so it's important to point out here that Montana INBRE does provide support for a proteomic and metabolomic mass spectrometry facility that's operated right here in Montana state university and so these research endeavors can be carried out in network I guess so to speak however we don't have dna sequencing capacity that being said Montana INBRE is part of a larger regional alliance network that includes the universities of idaho and new mexico state which both themselves have sequencing cores and in addition to those having utilized a variety of other cores over the years I’m happy to facilitate any interactions you might want so that you can carry out any uh sequencing related efforts you might want to so I hope you were able to stick with me through that um that overview and I didn't put any anyone off I really wanted to sort of give you some examples of how molecular technologies might be applied to your own research and how we in the bioinformatics corps might then contribute to interpreting that information so while the bioinformatics piece of the core has long existed and both here in INBREo and as part of msu we're presently small comprising just myself a tenured faculty member who has his own research program and teaching commitments but we have a vision that's large wherein we hope to grow both in terms of the number of bioinformaticians available so that we can serve a broad community of researchers but also provide a resource for technologies to enable Montana researchers like yourselves to engage in meaningful day-to-day research endeavors and thereby become a valuable contributor to contributor to the successful insertion of research into community health and well-being on that note we're open to working with all researchers but our priority is to those that operate within the INBREo framework and given our present size our commitments are to those that approach us first in addition to collaboratively contributing to research we're also working towards developing workshops and other training opportunities so that we can help pis and their students navigating their own data with respect to that last point we're looking into both building on existing initiatives carried out as parts of other or other parts of the core including an interactive r workshop that already takes place each semester through a collaborative interaction between scissors and the Montana state university library and is open to students and faculty alike for free [Music] we're in we're looking to develop additional workshops that focus on specific types of bioinformatic analyses such as metabolomics or microbiome analyses but also once we reach this uh post-covert era that's on the horizon we want to bring these and other bioinformatics workshops out to tribal and community colleges and build on some of that uh work that have you know been started with fort peck and and hopefully can distribute a little bit more broadly through the community but our first step is to get our input from researchers like yourselves throughout the state of Montana to better understand the types of research that you're engaging in and where the bioinformatics and biostatistics core can best support your efforts because if we can understand the prison capacity for bioinformatics throughout the state and identify where we can benefit your programs we can better focus our efforts to serve you to that end we've been working with Dr. eric riley and the team at the helps lab to develop and deploy a survey instrument that will help us to understand these things and that survey will be coming out in the next few weeks and so I strongly encourage you to keep an eye out for it and encourage you to participate because if you're here listening to me now I know that there is a way that we can help you and if you complete that survey that will help us get there what can we do for you now well we are more than willing to consult when it comes to study methods to make sure that or to translate your aims into molecular and bioinformatic practices um that are needed to to achieve the goals that you have for yourselves we can provide guidance on best practice we can do this in either existing research existing funded research or help you to put these things together in grant proposals we're more than happy to collaborate um in those endeavours um we are willing to and and capable of connecting you with resources for those molecular analyses including um the sequencing facilities that um that are present throughout the or outside of Montana but but are present and available for you to use um and then mass spec facilities um be that here at Montana state university or there are possibilities elsewhere as well uh and any other molecular type analyses that you might be interested in and then um to the best of our uh capacity we're willing to work with you in your analyses whether that be directly in a service type of relationship in providing guidance as you work through those analyses yourselves depending upon your preferences um so I see that there's a survey coming up but I am an impatient person and I’m eager to learn about your needs and so I'd like to at this point open the floor for any feedback you might have and I’m hoping that you might provide some early direction in what your bioinformatic needs are what would you like to see the bioinformatics and biostatistics core provide and specifically how can we best help you and your own research endeavors to better serve our native and rural populations thank you very much Carl these are great questions and please um folks if you have some feedback please put that in the q a and we also have the capability to turn on your audio if you'd like to say something um while that's happening Carl I’m just wondering um if you can provide some uh feedback on um whether there's a cost for this service and do people need to write this into their grant applications or could you just uh comment on that please yes so um we're right now we're um trying to be as available as possible um we are working on a fee structure um and that may change depending upon how busy we might become um at the present point in time we are utilizing um a fee structure that was actually developed through uh scissors and and help the helps land of 150 an hour um but like I say um you know at this point you know if we're not busy um that could be negotiable um you know through uh different means um but that's kind of where we're thinking about that figure you know if we start to get busy obviously the um the ideal is that we can grow this in fund additional implementations if we get to a point where we're uh overwhelmed and so that fee structure will be revisited as and if demand increases to sort of meet those needs and make sure that we're able to serve the people that need to be served great I know that's a perfect answer but that's kind of where we are right now okay that that's helpful and along those lines um brian is asking what is the best mechanism for opening up a discussion with you and others in the core is it that form on the web or uh just a direct email or what what what's the best way for people to start a conversation with you about their needs right so um I was actually had that in my next slide but um I’ll just give you a preview there um so we're you know you feel free to contact me by phone or email I’ll put those up so you can see them um we the bioinformatics portion of the core is not um does not receive requests through that uh scissors um channel um and so at this stage I’m open to you contacting me directly and if that becomes overwhelming at some point we might look to revise that but right now I’m happy to chat with anyone by phone or email and we can move forward from there we're already doing that we're already chatting with people in the inbree program and elsewhere about you know what we might contribute to their own uh research program so you know more free content great um did you have other slides I I just no just that was just my concluding slide to sort of point out how you might want to we might go about getting in contact with us if you have any um need to do so great um we have another question from peter and I apologize for my naivete but um he's he needs help understanding is it creamy and fun guilt is this possible this is in q a if you want to see how those are expressed in the q a but um do you are you familiar with that kind of assistance climb I’m yes um we are certainly converse with crime uh I’m only head well I've had much less experience with bundle but certainly we're happy to to work with people in understanding or moving through those resources for their own research purposes okay great um miranda is asking do you welcome researchers partnering with you to write your services into a grant if not in uh absolutely and uh we've done that already on several occasions um well mostly for immigrants but we're more than happy to work with you and any other funding resources that you might be targeting right are there is there more feedback on some of these questions or other questions you may have um for those of you out here out there are there um some feedback you can offer Carl on how his team can help your research and endeavors better serve our native and rural populations or other things you'd like to see the core provide and here's um here's another comment from miranda are the biostatistical services mainly through scissors or there are there other routes for that I’m not sure if Mark wants to answer that my um answer would be yes but Mark's still here maybe Mark can I turn you on here uh hang on just a second maybe you'll be around soon there we go okay I’m gonna allow you to talk Mark all right I think I’m on we'll see can you hear me yes okay great um yeah so as as uh director scissors um we can you know we're we're that touch point um I know there's discussion of of uh Nicole carnegie joining us and um we're still uh working out exactly who gets kind of uh which projects at this point but um but our intake form is a great place to start lost my connection all right I just Dr.ove back I got promoted oh wow that's very exciting I can't even turn on my video now there you go well yeah so so yeah so and and because of our our funding law or our way of funding is a little different than the bioinformatics core there is some some capacity that inbree is is staffing uh so we are available for projects as Carl mentioned our capacity varies depending on how busy we get and we're always trying to stay available for those inbuilt projects as a priority that's where a bulk of our funding is coming from but um we're trying to diversify our funding as well so we um are available uh for non-inquiry projects as well and we love to get written into grants which can allow us then to continue to add capacity moving forward um they don't have to be the inbrief side but those other grants that come later we can discuss how we might be a part of those moving forward and make sure we have capacity to be involved that's great that's good feedback for researchers listening in here other questions and comments is there anything else you'd like to add Carl no I I was just going to and I already have um you know redirected you to the bioinformatics and biostatistical core website where you can you know find any updates and all the information that could possibly be looking for and then provide you with my contact details again in case you want to get hold of me for you know any specific bioinformatics questions you might have or other sorts of engagement great and and again this um entire webinar is has been recorded and there's a lot of good information in here and we'll be posting this soon and we'll let all of you who registered know so you can share that link with your colleagues. Well, I think with that we're in good shape. Thank you, Carl, and Mark and Nicole and Bill, and I hope you all have a great da,y and we'll be getting back to you all soon with that link. Thanks so much, Carl; thanks again, Sue. Take care, everybody.