Professor Emeritus 

Contact Information

email: [email protected]

phone: 406 586 3887


B.S., Geology, Lawrence University, Appleton, WI, 1968
M.S., Geology, University of California, Berkeley, 1973
Ph.D., Geology, University of Montana, Missoula, 1976

Septic System Assessment Web Site

Septic Assessment

Research Interests

I am retired and no longer taking graduate students. My research interests focus on a variety of topics with the themes "geology" and "water". Interests include ground water, streams, snow, and water quality.   I currently serve on the Gallatin City County Board of Health,  the Gallatin Local Water Quality District Board, and the Technical Oversight Committee for the Yellowstone Controlled Groundwater Area.  Most of this service focuses on various aspects of water quality and the protection of the Yellowstone hydrothermal system in the State of Montana through the Yellowstone Controlled Groundwater Area formed by a compact between the National Park Service and the State of Montana

Theses Directed

Schaffer, Mark Andrew, 2011, Ground-water discharge and aquifer recharge zones near Four Corners, Gallatin County, Montana, MS

Chesley-Preston, Tara Lea, 2010, Patterns of natural avalanche activity associated with new snow water equivalence and upper atmospheric wind direction and speed in the mountains surrounding Gothic, Colorado, MS

Jenkins, Patricia Ann, 2007, Map-based tests on controls of anabranch river character on the lower Yellowstone River, MS

Trautman, Simon August, 2007,Wet Loose Snow Avalanching in Southwestern Montana, MS  

Romig, Jeannette M., 2004, March Wet Avalanche Prediction at Bridger Bowl Ski Area, Montana, MS

Fleming, Kerri Rae,  2003, The Effects of Septic Systems on Surface Water and Groundwater Quality in Two Subdivisions in the Gallatin County Local Water Quality District, Montana, MS

Dixon, Stewart Alan, 2002,Driller specific capacity as a measure of aquifer transmissivity and a test of the hydrogeologic units in the Gallatin Local Water Quality District, Gallatin County, Montana, MS

Kirk, Karin Bohacek, 2002, A preliminary investigation of the Madison aquifer for a drinking water supply in Bozeman, Montana, MS 

Kauffman, Martha Hoffman, 2000, An investigation of ground water-surface water interaction in the Flint Creek Valley, Granite County, Montana, MS

Durst, Alexander Daniel,  1999, Geologic controls on spring discharge in the Miller Creek basin, New World Mining District, Montana, MS

Hay, James Ernest: 1997, An investigation of groundwater recharge along the western flank of the southern Bridger Range, southwestern Montana; MS

Gleason, John Andrew, 1996, Terrain parameters of avalanche starting zones and their effect on avalanche frequency, MS

Clarke III, William Duckworth, 1991, Hydrogeology of the Armstrong and Nelson Springs, Park County, Montana, MS

Aspie, Jon Matthew, 1989, Influence of groundwater on streambank soil moisture content, storm runoff production and sediment production in a semi-arid watershed, southwest Montana, MS

Donohue, David Allen,1989, Paleochannel aquifer potential at Montana State University : a test of hypotheses, MS

Bugosh, Nicholas, 1988, Field verification of predictive bedload formulas in a coarse bedload mountain stream, MS

Stanley, Alice Roberta, 1988, Reconnaissance investigation of three areas in Montana for hydrogeologic suitability to host a hazardous waste disposal facility,MS

Guthrie, Gary Eich, 1984, Stratigraphy and depositional environment of the Upper Mississippian Big Snowy Group in the Bridger Range, southwest Montana,  MS

Moore, Bonnie K., 1984, Controls on ground-water availability and quality, the Bridger Canyon area, Bozeman, Montana, MS

Tremper, Bruce W.,1984, Determining snowpack accumulation at snow course sites in southwestern Montana using climatic station data and meteorological parameters--an assessment, MS

Wyatt, Glen Milton, 1984, Hydrogeology and geothermal potential of the Radersburg Valley, Broadwater county, Montana, MS

Grady, Thomas R., 1982, The effects of snow compaction on water release and sediment yield, MS

Hayes, Graham Stephen, 1981, Geologic stability of Mystic Lake Dam, Gallatin County, Montana, and computer simulation of potential flood hazards from the failure of the dam, MS

Bowen, David Wayne, 1980, Solid waste disposal site suitability evaluation in Montana, MS

Selected Publications

Savage, S.LO., Lawrence, R.L., Custer, S.G., Jewett, J.T., Powell, S.L., Shaw, J.A., 2012, Analyzing change in Yellowstone’s Terrestrial Emittance with Landsat Imagery:  GIScience and Remote Sensing, v 49, no. 3, p. 317-345.  

Custer, S.G., Heasler, H.P., and Uiles, C., 2012, Geothermal activity in Marcus, A.W., Meacham, J.E.,  Rodman, A.W., Steingisser, A.Y., Alan, S., and West., R., (ed.), Atlas of Yellowstone: Berkley, CA, University of California Press, p. 100-101.

Custer, S.G., Heasler, H.P., and Uiles, C., 2012, Geysers, in Marcus, A.W., Meacham, J.E.,  Rodman, A.W., Steingisser, A.Y., Alan, S., and West., R., (ed.), Atlas of Yellowstone: Berkley, CA, University of California Press, p. 104-105.

Savage, S.L., Lawrence R.L., Custer, S.G., Jewett, J.T., Powell, S.l., and Saw, J.A., 2010, Review of alternative methods for estimating terrestrial emittance and geothermal heat flux for Yellowstone National Park using Landsat imagery: GIScience & Remote Sensing, v. 47, no. 4, p. 460-479

2000 Custer, S.G. and Burton, G., Spatial data helps assess septic limitations in a rural community: 2000 ESRI International Users’ Conference p. 559

1996 Custer, S.G., Farnes, P., Wilson, J.P., and Snyder, R.D., A comparison of hand- and spline-drawn precipitation maps for mountainous Montana. Water Resources Bulletin, v. 32(2), P. 393-405.

1994 Custer, S.G., Michels, D.E., Sill, W.R., Sonderegger, J.L., Weight, W., and Woessner, W.W., Two strategies for Yellowstone National Park hydrothermal protection in light of scientific uncertainty. in, Marston, R.A. and Hasfurther, V.R. (eds.), Effects of Human-Induced Changes on Hydrologic Systems: American Water Resources, Association, Bethesda, MD, p. 821-830.

1991 Custer, S.G., Snow as a field-teaching medium for Earth Science: Journal of Geological Education, vol. 39, p. 34-43.

1989 Bugosh, N. and Custer, S.G., The effect of a Log-Jam Burst on Bedload Transport and Channel Characteristics in a Headwaters Stream. in, Woessner, W.W., and Potts, D.F. (eds.), American Water Resources Association Symposium Proceedings on Headwaters Hydrology: American Water Resources Association Technical Publication Series TPS-89-1, p. 203-212.

1987 Custer, S.G., Ergenzinger, P., Anderson, B., and Bugosh, N., Electromagnetic detection of pebble transport in streams: A method for measurement of sediment-transport waves. in, Ethridge, F.G. and Flores, R. (eds.), Recent Developments in Fluvial Sedimentology: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Special Publication 39, p. 21-26.