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Accounting & Finance topics

"Impact measurement in an emerging social sector: Four novel approaches"

Academy of Management Discoveries

Ed Gamble · Associate Professor of Accounting

Co-author: Pablo Muñoz; University of Liverpool
Co-author: Haley Beer; Warwick Business School

Key Takeaway: Social impact measurement is complicated. We identify four novel approaches to measuring social impact.

Implications for Policy: The process of formalizing social impact measurement can be fraught with problems and risks, which may hinder prosocial behavior. We offer four perspectives for policymakers to consider.

This paper explores the formalization of social impact measurement (SIM) in contexts where there are little or no expectations for it. Drawing on a combination of institutional and organizational-level theories, we assess the complex relationship between nine potential antecedents of SIM and its formalization, across 152 social entrepreneurs in Chile’s social sector. Using configurational comparative methods (fsQCA), we discover and map four novel approaches to social impact measurement, revealing a much more diverse and counterintuitive reality. We also find that factors assumed to be central to formalization in mature sectors, in emerging settings play a peripheral role at best. By offering a multi-level explanation of what matters and when for SIM in an emerging social sector, this paper offers empirical evidence on how to better capture and report SIM and expands the theoretical understanding of SIM as a governance and accountability mechanism in social entrepreneurship.

"When tax-exempt nonprofits detract value from society"

Academy of Management Perspectives

Ed Gamble · Associate Professor of Accounting

Co-author: Pablo Muñoz; University of Liverpool

Key Takeaway: There are three tax-exempt nonprofit conditions that interact and reinforce each other, compounding the value destruction to society.

Implications for Policy: Our findings offer important policy insights regarding the unintended consequences of tax exemptions and our proposed framework could be used to identify negative return situations.

Nonprofits receive tax exemptions in return for social value creation and delivery. While the outcomes of these tax exemptions are often positive, there are value detracting situations in which the cost of granting the tax exemption is likely to exceed its benefits. To date, explanations for these value detracting situations remain scattered and discipline centric. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to clarify the conditions under which tax-exempt nonprofits detract value from society. We survey fifteen years of tax-exempt nonprofit scholarship, across nine disciplines, and identify three value detracting conditions: policymaking and regulation intemperance, nonprofit management and governance distraction, and detection and prosecution inconsistencies. These three conditions interact and reinforce each other, compounding the value destruction to society. Overall, our findings offer important policy insights regarding the unintended consequences of tax exemptions and our framework can be used to identify negative return situations.

"Business model innovation as a window into adaptive tensions: Five paths on the B Corp journey"

Journal of Business Research

Ed Gamble · Associate Professor of Accounting

Co-author: Peter Moroz; Hill/Levene School of Business

Key Takeaway: B Corp audits and certification journeys are poorly understood.

Implications for Policy: There are differences of kind and degree with respect to prosocial audits and certification paths. We offer five perspectives for those who regulate prosocial certifications and audits.

The B Corporation (B Corp) audit and certification acts as a third-party signal of social purpose business model innovation. It is argued that B Corp certification helps organizations to capture value above economic gains, from activities with ethical, sustainable or moral objectives. However, the varying journeys and certification motivations of B Corps are poorly understood. In this paper we use theory related to the process of organizational design (Zott & Amit, 2010) to unpack these variations. Starting from a longitudinal data set, we employ a deductive case analysis approach of 47 B Corps to identify five certification paths: brand wagoners, reprioritizers, evangelists, inertial benchmarkers and reconfigurers. Our findings help to identify and describe distinct B Corp journeys over time. We conclude with a discussion of how these findings contribute to current theory on social purpose business model innovation, firm value characteristics and how B Corps manage competing tensions among identity and action.

"Measuring the integration of social and environmental missions in hybrids"

Journal of Business Ethics

Ed Gamble · Associate Professor of Accounting

Co-author: Simon Parker; Western University & University of Aberdeen
Co-author: Peter Moroz; Hill/Levene School of Business

Key Takeaway: This paper introduces a new typology and associated measure of social and environmental mission integration (SEMI) by conceptually framing a feature of hybrid organizations.

Implications for Policy: Within the same B Corp certification we empirically demonstrate that there is a range of congruence between organizations that claim to integrate social/environmental efforts within their economic objectives.

This paper introduces a new typology and associated measure of social and environmental mission integration (SEMI) by conceptually framing a feature of hybrid organizations—the degree of integration of their revenue model and social–environmental mission. The SEMI measure is illustrated using a hand-collected sample of 256 North American Certified B Corporations. We explore the heterogeneity of SEMI scores by identifying external-facing correlates and demonstrate non-congruence with Certified B Corporation’s audit results. Overall, our findings advance existing knowledge of these hybrid organizations and how they balance their social–environmental missions with their economic objectives.

"Problems with crisis intervention: When the government wants to restrain big banks but punishes small businesses instead"

Journal of Business Venturing Insights

Ed Gamble · Associate Professor of Accounting
Gary Caton · Professor of Finance

Co-author: Kelig Aujogue, Unaffiliated
Co-author: Yen Teik Lee, National University of Singapore

Key Takeaway: Crises often lead to regulatory reactions from policymakers. Knee-jerk, one-size-fits-all regulation like the Dodd-Frank Act, however, can produce counter-productive side effects for innocent bystander organizations. In this case, small-business bank lending declined significantly after Dodd-Frank was enacted.

Implications for Policy: Resist the temptation to use crises to enact comprehensive regulatory changes. Instead, a measured, focused regulatory response to the crisis, if necessary, would likely avoid many of the unintended consequences from crisis-motivated regulation.

Following the 2008 financial crisis, Congress passed the Dodd-Frank Act (DF) with the intent of reducing systemic risk posed by big banks to the country’s financial system. We empirically show that DF negatively impacted both the numbers and dollar amounts of small business loans issued by small banks. This new finding implies an unintended, counterproductive constraint on American venturing activities, particularly in rural communities. This should be of importance to academics and policymakers alike, considering that entrepreneurial activity is generally regarded as the backbone of the U.S. economy. Without adequate financing to small ventures, the ultimate health of the U.S. economy could be stunted. Our findings offer key insights into the fields of entrepreneurial finance, regulation and economic growth.

Management & Marketing topics

"Farm-to-Market" (book chapter)

Collaborations in Design Education

Graham Austin · Professor of Marketing

Co-author: Meta Newhouse; Montana State University

Key Takeaway: This course brought together a multidisciplinary group of faculty and students with farmer partners around the state. Each year, students worked to convert Montana agricultural commodities into value-added products. Such products yield greater profits for growers and economic growth for the state.

Implications for Policy: Montana farmers face a variety of issues in the marketing environment -- competition, food trends, short growing season, economic uncertainties, legal certifications, etc. -- which impact their profit margins. This course served as a pilot to demonstrate that leveraging talent across the university (in this case, to partner with farmers and Montana food entrepreneurs) may seem on the surface to be expensive, yet can foster community well-being and statewide economic growth.

"Performance Appraisal Cynicism Among Managers: a Job Demands Resources Perspective"

Journal of Business and Psychology

Virginia Bratton · Associate Professor of Management

Co-author: Michelle Brown
Co-Author Maria L. Kraimer

Abstract: This study aims to investigate the antecedents and consequences of manager’s performance appraisal cynicism (PA cynicism). Based on job demand-resources (JD-R) theory, we develop and test a model in which PA cynicism mediates the interactive effect of two appraisal-related resources (coworker support and performance appraisal experience) and an appraisal-related demand (number of direct reports) in predicting manager’s turnover intentions and leadership effectiveness. Survey data on performance appraisal-related demands and resources were obtained from school principals (in their role as managers) at time 1 and their PA cynicism, turnover intentions, and leadership effectiveness were collected six months later at time 2. Superiors rated principals’ leadership effectiveness. Appraisal-related demands moderate the relationship between coworker support and PA cynicism such that there was a negative relationship between coworker social support and PA cynicism when appraisal-related demands were high. Furthermore, we find that PA cynicism mediated the conditional indirect effects of coworker support on turnover intentions and leadership effectiveness. When managers are cynical about the PA process, they are more likely to contemplate leaving their organization and are rated as less effective leaders by their superiors. Coworker support decreases managers’ PA cynicism, especially for managers with a large number of direct reports. We examine PA cynicism from an underrepresented stakeholder in PA research, namely managers. Managers have a unique perspective on the PA process because they are both a recipient of appraisals and evaluate the performance of their direct reports.


"What motivates scientists in emerging economies to become entrepreneurs? Evidence from Vietnam"


Scott Bryant · Professor of Management

Co-author: Thang V. Nguyen and Hieu Nguyen; National Economics University
Co-author: Lan Nguyen, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology

Implications for Policy: This research impacts government policy in developing economies. Leaders can encourage scientists to apply their research in entrepreneurial endeavors by paying attention to the self-interest and the public-interest of the researchers.

We can encourage academic researchers in emerging economies to participate in entrepreneurial endeavors (ex: start-ups and licensing technologies to companies) by rewarding them for participating in the process. Rewards can include financial gains for the researchers as well as public recognition for their contributions.

"An Enhanced Kaizen Event in a Sterile Processing Department of a Rural Hospital: A Case Study"

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

Sean Harris · Assistant Professor of Accounting

Co-author: Valentina Nino, David Claudio, and Leonardo Valladares; Montana State University

Key Takeaway: An Enhanced Kaizen Event improved the efficiency of a Montana hospital’s Sterilization Processing Department, which plays a critical role in facilitating the Operating Room suite.

Implications for Policy: This research illustrates how hospital management can incorporate Enhanced Kaizen Events into their process improvement policies to increase both patient and staff value.

Operating Rooms (ORs) are the largest source of revenue and costs within most hospitals.  The Sterile Processing Department (SPD), which sterilizes reusable surgical instruments for the OR, rarely receives attention despite its critical role in the OR system.  The paper describes an Enhanced Kaizen Event (EKE) in the SPD of a rural hospital to identify sources of waste and minimize non-value-added time.  The EKE yielded an improved streamlined workflow and a new design for the SPD layout. Results included a 35% reduction in travel distance by the staff, elimination of non-value-added processes, reducing errors in the sterilization process, and eliminating cross-contamination for sterilized materials.

"Team aspects of leisure-based entrepreneurship"

Leisure Studies

Agnieszka Kwapisz · Associate Professor of Management

Key Takeaway: Ventures started from hobby are more likely to stay longer in the startup process but do not differ from other ventures in the probability of forming a new profitable firm. Hobby based entrepreneurs may benefit from finding team members who share their hobby, keeping a larger percentage of ownership of their business, or even pursuing solo entrepreneurship.

Implications for Policy: The entrepreneurs who start their ventures from a serious leisure pursuit typically associate to it intense feelings that are meaningful to their self-identity. My results show the importance of accounting for this passion when studying venture outcomes. Policymakers and leaders may need to account for these differences in evaluating venture success.

In this research I investigate how startup team characteristics correlate with a probability that a leisure-based entrepreneur forms a new profitable firm. I found that leisure-based ventures are more likely to stay longer in the startup process but do not differ from other ventures in the probability of forming a new profitable firm. Leisure-based startups are more likely to form a new firm if owners are solo founders or keep a larger ownership percentage in their hands and are less likely to form a new firm if teams are bigger or more functionally diverse. I conclude that the entrepreneurs who start their ventures from a serious pursuit of a personal hobby may benefit from finding team members who share their hobby, keeping a larger percentage of ownership of their business, or even pursuing solo entrepreneurship. The leisure-based startups should also be particularly attuned to the importance of team building in order to foster trust and reduce conflict.

"Health insurance coverage and sources of advice in entrepreneurship: Gender differences"

Journal of Business Venturing Insights

Agnieszka Kwapisz · Associate Professor of Management

Key Takeaway: The self-employed are less likely to be covered by health insurance under the ACA; Self-employed females are less likely to be insured than self-employed males; Self-employed females are less likely to be insured when consulting friends/family.

Implications for Policy: Most governments support self-employment (often emphasizing women self-employment) as the important source of jobs and economic growth. This research shows that lack of national health insurance encourages economic risk taking, especially for female entrepreneurs. Anything that can be done to make health insurance more available to the self-employed, such as universal health insurance or the ACA, has potential to lower the risk of venture failure, especially for self-employed women as they put themselves in a greater risk for bankruptcy in case of health problems or national disasters (such as the COVID-19 pandemic). My findings identify the source of financial information to be the central determinant in purchasing health insurance by self-employed women. Given these results, it may be beneficial to support free or low-cost financial advising on health insurance plans, options, and risks. At the very least, knowing that purchasing insurance depends on the sources of financial information suggest that public policy aiming at financial education is desired.

Most of the previous literature examining health insurance and entrepreneurship focused on the effects of provisions of health insurance coverage on the decision to start or end self-employment. This paper takes a different approach and investigates the decision to purchase health insurance once self-employed. Using data from the US Federal Reserve Board’s 2016 Survey of Consumer Finances, I found that in 2016 (when full provisions of the Affordable Care Act were in place) the self-employed were less likely to be insured, especially females who in the general population are more likely to be insured. Compared to the general population, the odds of being covered by health insurance were 62% lower for self-employed males and 83% lower for self-employed females. Additionally, self-employed females were less likely to be insured when they reported using friends and family as a source of financial information.

"Navigating an identity playground: Using sociomateriality to build a theory of identity play"

Organization Studies

Brooke Lahneman · Visiting Assistant Professor of Management

Co-author: Patricia Dahm and Taryn Stanko; California Polytechnic State University
Co-author: Jonathon Richter, Salish Kootenai College


Key Takeaway: Identity play may be even more generative in terms of trying on not just possible but improbable selves, so that careers thought not possible may become possible after experimentation or offer unique insights into the intersection of the self and a career path.

Implications for Policy: Identity defines “who I am” as a person, which guides an individual’s actions. This identity is malleable or ‘plastic’, and opportunities to experiment with possible, improbable, and even impossible identities, permits employees to experience new perspectives. Organizations could cultivate values around diversity and inclusion through policies that support the training of employees to experiment with their identities, beyond just what is possible. Particularly, organizational leaders could benefit from such training policies, in order to experiment with their subordinates’ perspectives and different leadership styles.

In this qualitative study, we draw on extensive interview data in the context of virtual environments to build theory on identity play. Using a sociomateriality perspective, we contribute to theory on identity play in three ways. First, we reveal how identity play unfolds via the sociomaterial intertwining of not just human agency, but also material agency, situated work practices, and self-representations. Second, we offer a new definition of identity play that goes beyond the exploration of possible selves and uncover identity play narratives on the possible self, the improbable self, and the impossible self. We demonstrate how identity play, particularly with impossible selves, shapes others’ experiences and thus has implications beyond the self. Finally, three identity play affordances emerged: plasticity of appearance, plasticity of behavior, and plasticity of perspective.

"Organizational culture as a tool for change"

Stanford Social Innovation Review

Brooke Lahneman · Visiting Assistant Professor of Management

Co-author: Jennifer Howard-Grenville, University of Cambridge
Co-author: Simon Pek, University of Victoria


Key Takeaway: New research into organizational culture demonstrates how people can guide social and sustainability goals and help foster a more inclusive environment.

Implications for Policy: Organizations and their members are facing demands to be increasingly flexible and adaptable in light of changing societal and environmental issues. Organizational policies that support desired practices can help managers and employees connect these concerns with aspects of the existing cultural toolkit, which can then speed uptake and action on these issues in the day-to-day, in ways that are aligned with the organization’s mission.

Understanding a new perspective of organizational culture as a “toolkit” can help people across organizational levels better tune in to, navigate, and direct their cultures to be more responsive to their organization’s evolving needs and opportunities—including societal demands to become more inclusive, diverse, or flexible. Furthermore, employees can utilize valued aspects of their organization’s culture to help their organization better address society’s needs. As experts in organization studies, we illustrate these levers for change by drawing on cases based on our own and others’ research. First, we outline why organizational culture matters to organizations and their stakeholders. Then we explore and reframe common myths about organizational culture in order to show how our understandings of what it is and how it is managed have shifted significantly, opening new opportunities for people to generate change.

"SME managers’ perceptions of competitive pressure and the adoption of environmental practices in fragmented industries: A multi-country study in the wine industry"

Organization & Environment

Brooke Lahneman · Visiting Assistant Professor of Management

Co-author: Karin Beukel, University of Copenhagen
Co-author: Daniele Cerrato, Marco Minciullo, and Nathalie Spielmann; Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore
Co-author: Allan Discuacruz, Lancaster University
Co-author: Beverly Tyler, North Carolina State University


Key Takeaway: An international study of small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) finds that the more sustainability practices an SME has in place, the better its financial performance – and the effect is enhanced when a SME perceives significant pressure from competitors.

Implications for Policy: For small- and medium-sized enterprise (SMEs), investing in developing and implementing sustainable practices contributes to profitability. However, for SMEs in fragmented industries, the threat of competition can shift managers’ perceptions of that relationship from benefit to risk, as implementation can be costly. Actually, having sustainable practices in place when competition increases provides many benefits to SMEs, thus organizational policies could shape the investment in such practices regardless of managers’ perceptions of competition and implementation costs.

This study explains how managers’ perceptions of pressure from competitors and industry associations to adopt environmental practices are associated with the adoption of such practices, and firm performance in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in fragmented industries. We conduct this research with survey data from wineries and vineyards in Italy, France, Denmark, and the United States. First, we find that, in fragmented industries, perceived weaker competitive pressure focuses SME managers’ attention on opportunities associated with the adoption of environmental practices, resulting in further adoption of such practices. We also find that perceived stronger competitive pressure focuses managers’ attention on competitive threats and efforts to maximize value creation from adopted practices, thus, positively moderating the relationship between adopted environmental practices and financial performance. These findings deepen our understanding of how SMEs in fragmented industries respond to perceived competitive pressure to adopt environmental practices.

"Women and the weight of a pandemic: A survey of four Western US states early in the Coronavirus outbreak"

Gender, Work & Organization

Amber Raile · Associate Professor of Management

Co-author: Eric Raile, David C.W. Parker, and Elizabeth A. Shanahan; Montana State University
Co-author: Pavielle Haines, Rollins University


Key Takeaway: Women – particularly women with children – were been particularly impacted by the COVID‐19 pandemic; women were more likely to lose income, experience negative impacts on their daily lives, and feel increased stress and worry for themselves and others.

Implications for Policy: Acknowledging the unequal gender effects of the COVID-19 pandemic should be a first step in developing future workplace policies and public policies. Immediately, managers reviewing employee performance should recognize that not all of their employees experienced 2020 the same way and put systems in place to prevent further disproportionate negative impacts in performance reviews. In the future, organizational and government policies should be changed to account for the unequal burden of caregiving work, which has proven vital to our society but is often underpaid or uncompensated, by making paid leave benefits permanent and increasing wages for paid caregiving roles.

In the initial months of the COVID‐19 outbreak in the United States, people struggled to adjust to the new normal. The burden of managing changes to home and work life seemed to fall disproportionately to women due to the nature of women's employment and gendered societal pressures. We surveyed residents of four western states in the first months of the outbreak to compare the experiences of women and men during this time. We found that women were disproportionately vulnerable to workplace disruptions, negative impacts on daily life, and increased mental load. Women with children and women who lost their jobs were particularly impacted. Inequalities that existed prior to the pandemic have amplified in the last few months. These results contribute to the growing body of findings about the disproportionate impacts of crises on women and should inform organizational and government policies to help mitigate these impacts and to enhance societal resilience in future emergencies.

"Accounting for social media effects to improve the accuracy of infection models: Combatting the COVID-19 pandemic and infodemic"

European Journal of Information Systems

Christine Sung · Assistant Professor of Marketing
Co-authors: Sujin Bae and Ohbyung Kwon; Kyung Hee University

Key Takeaway: Evidence shows that social media affects disease (non-)prevention through the (im)proper distribution of information, and distorts the predictive accuracy of infection models, including legacy Susceptible–Exposed–Infectious–Recovered (SEIR) models.

Implications for Policy: Utilizing information systems (IS) to analyze the spread of digital information via social media platforms can inform efforts to combat the pandemic and infodemic. Agencies responsible for infection and disease control, policy makers, businesses, institutions and educators must accurately monitor infection rates to appropriately allocate funding and human resources and develop effective disease prevention marketing campaigns.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, social media platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, etc. have played an important role in conveying information, both accurate and inaccurate, thereby creating mass confusion. As the response to COVID-19 has reduced face-to-face contact, communication via social media has increased. Our adjusted SEIR model reflects the effectiveness of information disseminated through social media by accounting for dimensions of social/informational motivation based on social learning/use and gratification theories, and uses Monte Carlo methodology and computational algorithms to predict effects of social media on the spread of COVID-19 (N = 2,095 cases). The results suggest that social media utilization measures should be incorporated into SEIR models to improve forecasts of COVID-19 infections.

"Artificial Intelligence in the Fashion Industry: Consumer Responses to GAN technology"

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management

Christine Sung · Assistant Professor of Marketing
Co-authors: Gukwan Koo, Ohbyung Kwon, and Kwonsang Sohn; Kyung Hee University

Key Takeaway: This study evaluates the utility of artificial intelligence (AI), generative adversarial networks (GANs), from consumers’ perspective and proposes practical advice to businesses that are considering using GANs to develop products for the retail market. Effectiveness of artificial intelligence (AI) on the manufacturing process was empirically proven in the fashion industry. AI is being increasingly developed for various applications in society with adaptations for use in everyday life.

Implications for Policy: Policy makers and practitioners can adapt applied technology effectively in information systems/manufacturing process. Governments and company systems could be effectively managed with AI for optimizing internal/external business/government operations.

CycleGAN, an artificial intelligence (AI) technology, can transform one image to mass images by machine learning. The main interest in cycleGAN is that it can generate countless attractive designs based on one image. The technology works as follows: CycleGAN can generate mass designs of fashion clothing via machine learning technology (algorithm) based on one image. This means that AI technology can be used to generate new, ingenious designs. This benefits the fashion industry by developing design creativity, reducing the design fee,and offering attractive designs to fashion consumers as a business effect. CycleGAN therefore draws our attention for research on the application of this AI technology.

"Brand Experience via Mobile AR App Marketing" (book chapter)

Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality

Christine Sung · Assistant Professor of Marketing


Key Takeaway: Technology-enhanced marketing increases the effectiveness of mobile app marketing/advertising and consumer engagement.

Implications for Policy: Policy makers and practitioners can adapt applied technology to social marketing campaigns.

The study adapts holiday mobile marketing to consumer (augmented reality) AR experiences by adding an additional dynamic: shared social experience. It therefore contributes to the literature related to both holiday mobile marketing and AR technology marketing. The study tested the efficacy of holiday AR technology marketing by enhancing authentic brand experiences and engagement.

"Consumers’ Responses to Mobile App Advertisements during Holiday Periods"

Journal of Consumer Marketing

Christine Sung · Assistant Professor of Marketing


Key Takeaway: Advertising attitudes across all discount rates and product types mediate the relationship between brand trust and purchase intentions; the anticipated gain associated with using a mobile app (i.e., access to discounts) moderates the effect of attitudes toward ads promoting regular products when a high discount is offered.

Implications for Policy: Policy makers and practitioners can use mobile devices for an effective social marketing/advertising campaign. In addition, people’s perceived anticipated gain via a mobile app can influence their response toward marketing/advertising via hand-held devices.

This paper aims to investigate factors affecting the relationship between consumers’ brand trust and purchase intentions after exposure to targeted mobile app ads during holiday periods, including the mediating roles of consumers’ ad attitudes, different discount levels and their interactions; and the moderating roles of the anticipated gain (loss) (i.e., access to discounts) associated with mobile app usage (non-usage).

"The Effects of Augmented Reality Mobile App Advertising: Viral Marketing via Shared Social Experience"

Journal of Business Research

Christine Sung · Assistant Professor of Marketing


Key Takeaway: Results show that immersive new brand experiences enabled by augmented reality (AR) positively influence consumer responses. These findings suggest that practitioners should consider combining AR marketing tools with existing marketing approaches to facilitate shared social experience (i.e., unpaid brand endorsement) and increase purchase intentions.

Implications for Policy: Policy makers and practitioners could help (social) marketing campaigns stand out in terms of effectiveness and consumer engagement in their targeted marketing campaigns using applied technology (AR).

Augmented reality (AR) tools can increase the effectiveness of traditional marketing approaches. This study tests the effectiveness of AR advertising in the specific context of holiday mobile app marketing. This study investigates consumer responses to AR mobile app advertising by measuring shared social experience (which is associated with user-generated viral marketing behavior) and purchase intentions.

"Motivators of Prestige Brand Purchase: Testing Cultural (In)stability of Measures Over Time Across the United States, Poland, and South Korea"

Journal of International Consumer Marketing

Christine Sung · Assistant Professor of Marketing
Co-authors: Roger Calantone and Patricia Huddleston; Michigan State University


Key Takeaway: Consumers’ motivations to buy prestige brands in the global market are different in the high, medium, and low levels of individualism.

Implications for Policy: Policy makers and practitioners can account for a cultural characteristic, drawn from Hofstede’s cultural dimension (e.g., individualism dimension) when launching brands or conducting international trade.

This article encompasses two studies of how cultural dimensions help us understand consumers’ motivations to buy prestige brands in the global market. We investigated the effects of social interaction factors on prestige brand purchase in the U.S., Poland, and South Korea (high, medium, and low levels of individualism; N = 1,816). For two countries, we found differences in social belonging effect, such that consumers with low social belonging were more likely to show high prestige brand purchase behavior.

"The Sung Diagram: Revitalizing the Eisenhower Matrix" (book chapter)

Diagrammatic Representation and Inference

Christine Sung · Assistant Professor of Marketing

Co-author: MacDonald Burgess, Brittany Fasy, David Millman, and Troy Oster; Montana State University
Co-author: Hannah Bratterud, Multiplier Consulting Group

Key Takeaway: Our proposed extended Eisenhower Decision Matrix can be more effective and useful than the traditional Eisenhower Decision Matrix to manage tasks.

Implications for Policy: Policy makers and practitioners can use an extended Eisenhower Decision Matrix to make strategies for planning tasks.

The Eisenhower Decision Matrix, credited to the task management system of US President Dwight Eisenhower, is a graphical diagram used in strategy and planning for tasks. This matrix, however, only provides four types of priorities. We identify a collection of scenarios in which the traditional matrix provides misleading suggestions and propose an extension to the matrix that addresses the misleading suggestions illustrated with examples and implementation in a web application.

"When Best Intentions Fail: Ads May Fall Short in Combating Islamophobia"

Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising

Eric Van Steenburg · Assistant Professor of Marketing

Key Takeaway: Advertisements recalling the events of 9/11 that were designed to reduce Islamophobia instead entrenched the viewer’s political worldview and increased their negative attitudes toward Muslims.

Implications for Policy: 

Crimes against Muslims Americans are increasing at the same time political and media rhetoric has aided the rise of Islamophobia. In response, the Council on American-Islamic Relations initiated an advertising campaign to reframe the discourse. This research analyzes the ads, bringing together concepts of rhetorical articulation of politics, discourse analysis of media-based rhetoric, and complicity theory related to racism to understand contemporary political framing of Islam. A quantitative study found that one’s religious fundamentalism had an effect on the viewer’s attitude toward the ads. This was followed by a qualitative analysis of the ads based on advertisement critique. Results show that the ads reinforce cultural worldviews that frame Muslims as “other” that could entrench existing attitudes toward Muslim Americans. Suggestions for future advertising efforts to reframe the discussion conclude the article.

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