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"Can We Talk About Pay Discrimination/Equal Pay/Strategic Compensation Practices? An Exploratory Study on Framing Gender Pay Inequity"

Business and Politics

Graham Austin · Professor of Marketing
Virginia Bratton · Associate Professor of Management
Amber Raile · Associate Professor of Management

Abstract: Situated within the public will and political will framework, this paper explores frames to address the social issue of gender pay inequity. Specifically, the authors examine whether demographic characteristics affect perceived acceptability of different frames describing gender pay inequity and perceptions of this social issue. First, the authors identified 26 terms used to discuss gender pay inequity; this list was narrowed to 12, representing four categories. Next, the authors solicited sentiment reactions to those frames and perceptions of gender pay inequity. Taken together, the results indicated that although respondents had consistently positive reactions to the frames fair pay, equal pay, and pay fairness, perceptions varied across demographic groups. The biggest effects were consistently for political party-related variables. One frame, strategic compensation practices, emerged as a value-neutral frame that could potentially be used to reframe the issue and re-engage business and political stakeholders who do not perceive gender pay inequity as problematic.


"Beer Excise Taxes and the Craft Beverage and Modernization Tax Reform Act"

Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics

Graham Austin · Professor of Marketing
Co-author: Joseph Atwood, Montana State University
Co-author: Gary W. Brester; Montana State University
Co-author: Michael McCullough, University of California San Diego

Abstract: In December 2017, the Craft Beverage and Modernization Tax Reform Act (CBMTRA) lowered federal beer excise taxes for a period of 2 years, and the Taxpayer Certainty and Disaster Tax Act of 2020 made the reduction permanent. We evaluate the ramifications of the CBMTRA on producers, consumers, and tax receipts and quantify potential differential effects among the micro, regional, and macro brewing sectors. Although the excise tax reduction was supposed to primarily support the micro brewing sector, we find that the CBMTRA provided a larger combined benefit to the regional and macro brewing sectors.

"Simulating a sterilization processing department to evaluate block schedules and tray configurations"

The Journal of the International Council on Systems Engineering

Sean Harris · Assistant Professor of Management
Co-author: Valentina Nino; Kennesaw State University
Co-author: David Claudio, University of Massachusetts Lowell

Abstract: Discrete event simulation is a well-established tool for examining the effect of different operating room (OR) block schedules on various performance metrics within the OR suite and adjacent units. However, one unit that has rarely been studied is the sterilization processing department (SPD), which cleans and assembles reusable OR instruments. As part of a larger research study, we developed a series of OR block assignment models that sought to reduce the workload of the SPD and developed a tray optimization model to reduce the number of instruments on increasingly bloated instrument trays. While initial numerical experiments were promising, a comprehensive simulation model of the OR and SPD was needed to more thoroughly examine how potential changes to the block schedule and/or more efficient tray configurations could improve SPD processing times. In this article, we incorporate the SPD into an existing simulation model of an OR suite, which is the first of its kind, and examine the effect that different block schedules and tray configurations have on SPD processing times. Simulation results confirm earlier numerical computations. Furthermore, simulation results suggest that more efficient instrument tray configurations are a much better and more viable method for improving SPD processing time than reconfiguring block schedules.


"American Indians travel great distances for obstetrical care: Examining rural and racial disparities"

Social Science & Medicine

Sean Harris · Assistant Professor of Management
Andreas Thorsen · Assistant Professor of Management
Co-author: Maggie L. Thorsen, Montana State University
Co-author: Janelle F. Palacios, Kaiser Permanente
Co-author: Ronald G. McGarvey, University of Missouri

Abstract: Rural, American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people, a population at elevated risk for complex pregnancies, have limited access to risk-appropriate obstetric care. Obstetrical bypassing, seeking care at a non-local obstetric unit, is an important feature of perinatal regionalization that can alleviate some challenges faced by this rural population, at the cost of increased travel to give birth. Findings suggest that birthing people living in rural areas and on American Indian reservations were more likely to bypass to give birth, with bypassing likelihood depending on health risk, insurance, and rurality. AI/AN and reservation-dwelling birthing people traveled significantly farther when bypassing. Findings highlight that distance traveled was even farther for AI/AN people facing pregnancy health risks (23.8 miles farther than White people with pregnancy risks) or when delivering at facilities offering complex care (14–44 miles farther than White people). While bypassing may connect rural birthing people to more risk-appropriate care, rural and racial inequities in access persist, with rural, reservation-dwelling AI/AN birthing people experiencing greater likelihood of bypassing and traveling greater distances when bypassing.

"Environmental practice adoption in SMEs: The effects of firm proactive orientation and regulatory pressure"

Journal of Small Business Management

Brooke Lahneman · Visiting Professor of Management
Co-author: Beverly B. Tyler; North Carolina State University
Co-author: Daniele Cerrato, Marco Minciullo, and Nathalie Spielmann; Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore
Co-author: Allan Discua Cruz, Lancaster University
Co-author: Karin Beukel, University of Copenhagen

Abstract: Even with proven benefits of engaging in sustainability, and stakeholder and regulatory pressure to do so, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) seldom adopt environmental practices beyond those required. To investigate why some SMEs adopt environmental practices while others do not, we studied the proactive orientation–environmental practices link and the moderation of regulatory pressure on this relationship. Based on a survey of 286 SMEs in the wine industry in Italy, France, Denmark, and the United States, we tested our model using regression analysis. We found support for our hypotheses on the positive proactive orientation-environmental practices link and the enhancing role of regulatory pressure. We conducted further supplementary exploratory analyses to examine these relationships among different types of environmental practices. The findings from our study offer new research directions regarding the nuanced roles of proactive orientation and regulatory pressure in motivating SMEs to adopt more environmental practices.


"Buyer-seller negotiation in consumer markets: an intention congruence approach"

Journal of Consumer Marketing

Omar Shehryar · Professor of Marketing

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to understand how the degree of congruence between buyers’ and sellers’ intentions to negotiate impacts buyers’ postpurchase emotions and attitudes. In addition, the study examines whether buyers’ self-confidence and negotiation expertise can increase buyers’ perceptions of control and regret, as well as buyers’ postpurchase satisfaction and enjoyment with the purchase. Traditionally, marketplace exchanges have been classified as either fixed price or negotiated. The present research treats marketplace exchanges along a continuum of intention congruence to test the relationships between intention congruence and outcome variables of control, regret, satisfaction and enjoyment with the purchase.

Results indicate that when buyers are willing to negotiate but sellers do not reciprocate equally, buyers feel less in control of a transaction. Contrarily, buyers experienced greater control and lesser regret when buyers’ perceptions of sellers’ intention to negotiate exceeded buyers’ own intentions to negotiate. Results also suggest that when buyers’ intentions to negotiate were congruent with buyers’ perception of sellers’ intention to negotiate, greater dyadic levels of negotiation marginally lowered buyers’ perceived regret. Overall, an intention-congruence perspective adds to the current understanding of negotiated exchanges and is a meaningful approach for improving postpurchase outcomes for buyers.


"NFT luxury brand marketing in the metaverse: Leveraging blockchain-certified NFTs to drive consumer behavior"

Psychology & Marketing

Christine Sung · Associate Professor of Marketing
Co-author: Ohbyung Kwon; KyungHee University
Co-author: Kwonsang Sohn; KyungHee University

Abstract: Industry 4.0 technology enables luxury fashion brands in the virtual market to quantify the value of digital items in the metaverse; thus, brands can maintain their reputations, ensure consistent and integrated luxury brand marketing, and attract new consumers in the virtual market. Understanding consumer behavior toward buying digital assets (i.e., nonfungible tokens [NFTs]) is important. By using blockchain-based NFTs as a way to verify the authenticity of digital assets in the virtual market, luxury brands can maintain their reputations and help consumers protect their digital assets. Thus, developing global marketing strategies supported by this technology is important for the success of luxury fashion brands in the metaverse. We conducted analyses to explore consumer behavior in the metaverse with regard to blockchain-based luxury NFTs. The findings reveal the psychological evaluation process as a mechanism that drives consumer behavior toward NFT luxury brand fashion items in global virtual markets. The empirical findings also extend the application of game theory and prospect theory by revealing the psychological evaluation of risks associated with (not) buying luxury fashion NFTs as another mechanism driving consumer behavior in the metaverse.

"Attractiveness or expertise? Which is more effective in beauty product endorsement? Moderating role of social distance"

International Journal of Advertising

Christine Sung · Associate Professor of Marketing
Co-author: Yung Kyun Choi; Dongguk University
Co-author: Ruonan Zhang; Rollins College

Abstract: In the beauty industry, advertisers are increasingly exploring endorsements from social media influencers (SMIs) as a strategy to promote positive consumer responses. For this strategy to be effective, it is important to select appropriate SMIs. Across two experiments, we investigated the moderating role of social distance by comparing an attractive celebrity to an expert SMI (Study 1) and by comparing attractive SMIs to expert SMIs (Study 2). The findings indicate that attractiveness is more effective when the perceived social distance from the endorser is close, whereas expertise is better when the social distance is far. Furthermore, the effects of endorser type on advertising effectiveness were mediated by attractiveness (expertise), which was mediated by the parasocial relationship with the SMI. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of the findings regarding social media advertising strategies.

"Augmented digital human vs. human agents in storytelling marketing: Exploratory electroencephalography and experimental studies"

Psychology & Marketing

Christine Sung · Associate Professor of Marketing
Brian Gillespie · Professor of Marketing
Co-author: Dai-In Danny Han; Breda University of Applied Sciences
Co-author: Yung Kyun Choi; Dongguk University
Co-author: Anja Couperus; ZUYD University of Applied Sciences
Co-author: Marc Koppert; ZUYD University of Applied Sciences

Abstract: As the fourth industrial revolution unfolds and the use of digital humans becomes more commonplace, understanding digital humans' potential to replace real human interaction or enhance it, particularly in storytelling marketing contexts, is becoming evermore important. To promote interaction and increase the entertainment value of technology-enhanced storytelling marketing, brands have begun to explore the use of augmented digital humans as storytelling agents. In this article, we examine the effectiveness of leveraging advanced technologies and delivering messages via digital humans in storytelling advertisements. In Study 1, we investigate the effectiveness of narrative transportation on behavioral responses after exposure to an interactive augmented reality mobile advertisement with a digital human storyteller. In Study 2, we compare how consumers respond to augmented digital human versus real human storytelling advertisements after conducting an exploratory neurophysiological electroencephalography study. The findings show that both types of agents promote narrative transportation when the story fits the product well. Moreover, a digital human perceived as more human-like elicits stronger positive consumer responses, suggesting an effective new approach to storytelling marketing.

"This Ad's For You: How Personalized SNS Advertisements Affect the Consumer-Brand Relationship"

Journal of Consumer Marketing

Eric Van Steenburg · Associate Professor of Marketing
Co-author: Trang Tran; East Carolina University
Co-author: Sandipan Sen; ZUYD Southeast Missouri State University

Abstract: Firms can now access users’ digital histories due to advances in technology and deliver personalized recommendations through social network sites (SNS) such as Facebook that offers advanced targeting options and reliable conversion tracking. This paper aims to examine the effects of personalized advertisements on SNS on the relationship between consumers and brands, tests the impact of brand attachment and experience on brand equity through personalized SNS ads and investigates the influence of such ads on branded products and services.

Results showed that SNS ads supporting the brand had a significant positive impact on respondents’ brand attachment and brand experience. In both studies, brand experience positively impacted all the elements of brand equity, while brand attachment was found to impact brand loyalty.

The findings illustrate how personalized ads for brands appearing on SNS can change consumer perceptions, thus affecting the consumer–brand relationship. The results bode well for brands considering leveraging SNS in their marketing mix, particularly when the strategy behind the advertising is brand building.

"The PhD origins of finance faculty"

Journal of Empirical Finance

Haoyang Xiong · Assistant Professor of Finance
Co-author: Todd R. Jones; Mississippi State University

Abstract: We document the doctoral origins of finance faculty in U.S. finance departments. In our main sample, we find that graduates from top-ranked universities are disproportionately represented; for instance, nearly half of faculty come from universities with top 25 Ph.D. programs, and many of these attended a top 5 university. Many of the faculty at top universities went to another (or the same) top university for their Ph.D. Among regional universities, we find evidence that it is common for departments to hire graduates from universities in the same geographical region.



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